Karlson, A., Bederson, B., SanGiovanni, J. (January 2005)
We have designed two interfaces to support one-handed thumb use for PDAs and cell phones. Both use Scalable User Interface (ScUI) techniques to support multiple devices with different resolutions and aspect ratios. The designs use variations of zooming interface techniques to provide multiple views of application data: AppLens uses tabular fisheye to access nine applications, while LaunchTile uses pure zoom to access thirty-six applications. Two sets of thumb gestures represent different philosophies for one-handed interaction. We conducted two studies to evaluate our designs. The first study explored whether users could learn and execute the AppLens gesture set with only minimal training. Participants performed more accurately and efficiently using semantic gestures for directional navigation than abstract gestures for object interaction. A second study gathered user reactions to each interface, as well as comparative preferences. With minimal exposure to each design, most users favored the tabular fisheye interface.