Zhao, H., Plaisant, C., Shneiderman, B. (October 2005)
We first describe an Action-by-Design-Component (ADC) framework to guide auditory interface designs for exploratory data analysis. Applying the framework to the interactive sonification of geo-referenced data, we systematically explored and evaluated its design space. A data exploration tool, iSonic, was implemented for users with vision impairment. In depth case studies with 7 blind users showed that iSonic enabled them to find facts and discover data trends of geo-referenced data, even in unfamiliar geographical contexts. Analysis of user task behaviors and usage patterns confirmed that the framework has captured auditory information seeking actions and components that were naturally adopted by subjects to accomplish geo-referenced data exploration tasks. The results provide evidence for us to extend the framework, and guidance for designers of unified auditory workspaces for general exploratory data analysis.