Norman, K. (December 2010)
Two instruments were developed to assess the extent to which individuals can become immersed in different activities (IAI, ImmerseAbility of Individuals) and the extent to which video games create a sense of presence (ING, ImmersiveNess of Games). Participants in a laboratory study filled out a demographic questionnaire about themselves and then the first survey on ImmerseAbility of Individuals (IAI). They were then asked to play a video game for about 15 to 30 minutes, after which they filled out the second survey on ImmersiveNess of Games (ING). A wide variety of games were sampled to generate sufficient variability in the ING ratings. Games ranged from Internet flash games and Facebook games in computer web browsers to console games on the Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, and PlayStation 3 projected on a 4 by 6 foot display. Factor analyses identified both positive and negative attributes of individuals and of games that correlated with the sense of presence in a video game. In play testing games, the IAI factors can be used to control for individual differences among testers while the ING factors can be used to evaluate the video game.