Skip to main content


Lifshitz, J., Shneiderman, B. (March 1990)
Window control strategies for hypertext traversal: an empirical study
Proc. 29th Annual ACM DC Technical Symposium (June 1991).
HCIL-90-03, CS-TR-2356, CAR-TR-475

Nowadays, larger and higher resolution screens supporting multiple windows are widely available. They are often used to traverse hypertext databases for fact retrieval, education or casual browsing. This paper describes a study comparing two methods of window control strategies for article placement in four, equal sized and tiled windows (By tiled we mean non-overlapping, non-movable and non-resizable windows, which together cover the entire screen.) The first placement strategy - Automatic Panning (A P) - was controlled by the system software and the second placement strategy - User Controlled Placement (UCP) - trasferred control to the users. The task required subjects to answer questions about the content of a hypertext. Statistical analysis shows that subjective preference was significantly higher and amount of backtracking was significantly lower for the user controlled placement. Speed differences did not prove to be significant, although there was consistent tendency favoring the automatic pa nning strategy.

Computational and Data Journalism
More information

Tech Reports
Video Reports
Annual Symposium

Seminars + Events
HCIL Seminar Series
Annual Symposium
HCIL Service Grants
Events Archives
HCIL Conference Travel Award
Job Openings
For the Press
HCIL Overview
Become a Member
Collaborating Groups + People
Academic Visitors
Join our Mailing List
Contact Us
Visit Us
HCIL Store
Give the HCIL a Hand
HCIL T-shirts for Sale
Our Lighter Side
HCIL Memories Page
Faculty/ Staff
Ph.D. Alumni
Past Members
Research Areas
Design Process
Digital Libraries
Physical Devices
Public Access
Research Histories
Faculty Listed by Research
Project Highlights
Project Screenshots
Publications and TRs
Studying HCI
Masters in HCI
PhD in HCI
Visiting Scholars
Class Websites
Sponsor our Research
Sponsor our Annual Symposium
Active Sponsorship
Industrial Visitors