Chimera, R., Wolman, K., Mark, S., Shneiderman, B. (revised Sept. 1993)
Three different interfaces were used to browse a medium (174 items) and large (1296 items) table of contents. A fully expanded stable interface, expand/contract interface, and multi-pane interface were studied in a between-subject experiment with 41 nov ice participants. Timed fact retrieval and incidental learning tasks were performed, and subjective satisfaction ratings were collected. We found that both the expand/contract and multi-pane interfaces produced significantly faster performance times tha n the stable interface for large hierarchies; other advantages of the expand/contract and multi-pane interfaces over the stable interface are discussed. The importance of animation characteristics of the expand/contract interface is explained. Further r esearch on extended features of the multi-pane and expand/contract interfaces is covered.