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Shneiderman, B., Byrd, D., Croft, W. (January 1997)
Clarifying Search: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches
D-Lib Magazine, January 1997Condensed versions published as: Shneiderman, B., A framework for search interfaces, IEEE Software (March/April 1997), 18-20. Revised and shortened version published as: Shneiderman, B., Byrd, D., and Croft, B., Sorting out searching: A user-interface framework for text searches, Communications of the ACM 41, 4 (April 1998), 95-98.

Current user interfaces for textual database searching leave much to be desired: individually, they are often confusing, and as a group, they are seriously inconsistent. We propose a four- phase framework for user-interface design: the framework provides common structure and terminology for searching while preserving the distinct features of individual collections and search mechanisms. Users will benefit from faster learning, increased comprehension, and better control, leading to more effective searches and higher satisfaction.

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