Enhanced with SHOE

Commerce Ontology (draft)

Description:This ontology describes the basic concepts of commerce, including suppliers, manufacturers, and products. An e-business can combine this with a domain-specific ontology to describe its products. Please send any comments or suggestions to the contact listed below. This is a draft ontology and may change at any time.
Contact:Jeff Heflin (heflin@cs.umd.edu)
Revision Date:28 Apr 2000

Organization of this Document

This ontology is declared in this document both in human-readable form (what you see in front of you now) and machine-readable SHOE form (which you can see from viewing the html source of this document). The rest of this document is divided into the following sections:

Extended Ontologies

The following ontologies are extended by the current ontology:


An ontology may rename elements from another ontology in order to provide a shortcut for referencing that element or to provide an alternate term for it.

Object Renamed From ================================================================ CommercialOrganization gen.CommercialOrganization MeasurementUnit meas.MeasurementUnit Organization gen.Organization addressCity gen.addressCity addressState gen.addressState addressStreet gen.addressStreet addressZip gen.addressZip affiliatedOrganization gen.affiliatedOrganization description base.description name base.name orgAddress gen.orgAddress orgPhone gen.orgPhone subOrganizationOf gen.subOrganizationOf


The following taxonomy is the collection of categories declared in this ontology. The hierarchical form is intended to show the ISA chain. Categories in [Brackets] are not defined here but are defined in an ontology extended by this one. Elements in {Braces} are additional supercategories of the category immediately before them (signifying multiple inheritance). Categories followed by an asterisk are defined in another ontology but are provided with a local alias.



Relationships are declared between one or more arguments. Relationship arguments are either types or are categories. If the argument is a category, any subcategory of that category is valid as well. Relations which are defined in another ontology but provided with a local alias are followed by an asterisk.

   addressStreet(Address, .STRING)*
   addressCity(Address, .STRING)*
   addressState(Address, .STRING)*
   addressZip(Address, .STRING)*
   affiliatedOrganization(Organization, Organization)*
   description(base.SHOEntity, .STRING)*
   manufacturedBy(Product, Manufacturer)
   manufacturerPartId(Product, .STRING)
   name(base.SHOEntity, .STRING)*
   orgAddress(Organization, Address)*
   orgPhone(Organization, .STRING)*
   price(Product, .NUMBER)
   subOrganizationOf(Organization:"suborganization", Organization:"superorganization")*
   suppliedBy(Product, Supplier)
   supplierPartId(Product, .STRING)
   unitQuantity(Product, .NUMBER, MeasurementUnit)


Constants are used to identify instances that may be commonly used with an ontology. In this section, each constant is grouped under its category.

No constants are defined.


Inference rules are used to determine what additional facts can be implied if other facts are known. They take the form of if/then rules.

No inference rules are defined.


A person or group that makes a product.
A commodity offered for sale. Typically, a Product should also be a subclass of a specific kind of PhysicalObject or Activity, so that it may be properly categorized and described.
A person or group that sells a product.
The price of one unit of the product in US dollars.
The quantity of the product that is considered a single unit.
The supplier of the product.
The supplier's identification for the product.
The manufacturer of the product.
The manufacturer's identification for the product.


Change History:

Enhanced with SHOE