USER INTERFACE STRATEGIES '91 A Live Satellite TV Broadcast December 5, 1990 University of Maryland Instructional Television Organized by Ben Shneiderman Speakers: Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland User Interface Update Andries van Dam, Brown University Electronic Books: User Controlled Animation in a Hypermedia Framework Elliot Soloway, University of Michigan Interactive Learning Environments Bill Curtis, MCC Human Interface Laboratory Advanced User Interface Architectures and Software Tools Audience: User interface designers, programmers, software engineers, interface evaluators, managers in the computing and communications fields, technical writers, human factors specialists, trainers, marketing personnel. Overview: Four leaders in the field offer their perspectives on why the user interface is a central focus for expanding applications of computers in business, education, the home, etc. They offer their visions and suggest exciting opportunities for the next decade's developments. Demonstrations, new software tools, guiding principles, emerging theories, and future scenarios will be presented. Enrollment: This live satellite course will be broadcast from the University of Maryland Instructional Television System via Ku and C Bands. In order to view the broadcast, access to a satellite dish is necessary. Contact your organization's training or conference director to ask if he or she can organize a satellite downlink and obtain a site license. If you do not have access to a satellite dish, a number of open viewing sites have been established in major metropolitan areas in the US and Canada. For information on viewing locations, course fee, and for questions about the broadcast, call (301) 405-4905 or FAX (301) 314-9639. The broadcast will be in cooperation with the National Technological University (NTU). Lecture 1: 11:00am - Noon EST User Interface Update Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland Rapid progress by researchers and developers during the past year has opened up new opportunities: 1) Public Access via Touchscreen and Multi-media are substantially improved - information kiosks, videodisk and home control panels, database query, touchscreen keyboards, music and art instruments 2) Computer Supported Cooperative Work and the emergence of groupware is supported by applications for education and business, tour our new Teaching Theater by videotape 3) Home control systems become more attractive - Security, entertainment, and comfort control, periodic scheduling for home devices, taming your VCR, access to information resources and hypermedia. Ben Shneiderman is Head of the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, Professor of Computer Science, and Member of the Institute Advanced Computer Studies all at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is the co-author of the recently published hyperbook/disk Hypertext Hands-On!, and author of Designing the User Interface and Software Psychology. Dr. Shneiderman is editor of the Ablex Publishers series on Human-Computer Interaction, on the editorial board of 6 journals, the author of 125 technical papers, and the creator of the Hyperties hypertext system. He is an international lecturer and consultant for many organizations including Apple, AT&T, IBM, Library of Congress, NASA, and NCR. Lecture 2: 12:30pm - 1:25pm EST Electronic books: User-controlled animation in a hypermedia framework Andries van Dam, Brown University Electronic books have the potential of preserving the attractive properties of paper books while ameliorating their shortcomings. A model for such books, and indeed of a digital library, that is becoming increasingly popular is that of a hypermedia database: a directed-graph-structured collection with media such as text, dynamic graphics, video and audio at the nodes. An essential ingredient is user control of the presentation's content and format. An important example of such interactivity is user-controlled, real-time 3D (and 4D) animation derived from stored models of physical and abstract objects and phenomena. Hypermedia electronic books will be used for such applications as teaching and learning, research, technical documentation and even electronic shopping. Brown University's Intermedia system and the Animation Generation system will be shown. Andries van Dam is a professor of Computer Science at Brown University and was the department's first Chairman. He has been working for over 20 years on the design of ``electronic books,'' based on high-resolution graphics displays, for use in teaching and research. van Dam received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1966. A member of IEEE Computer Society, and ACM, he helped to found and was an editor of Computer Graphics and Image Processing and was an editor of ACM's Transactions on Graphics. In 1967, Professor van Dam co-founded ACM's SIGGRAPH. He is the coauthor of the popular book Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, and its greatly expanded successor, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, published in June 1990. van Dam has received the IEEE Centennial Medal, State of Rhode Island Governor's Science and Technology Award, and National Computer Graphics Association's Academic Award. He is past Chairman of the Computer Research Board, and Senior Consulting Scientist at Bloc Development and ComputerVision. Lecture 3: 1:35pm - 2:30pm EST Interactive Learning Environments Elliot Soloway, University of Michigan The computer has long held great promise for education and training: individualized instruction, mimicking that of a personal mentor, has been the Holy Grail. However, years of experience with various approaches to education and training (e. g., computer-assisted instruction (CAI), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), interactive video (IV)) has shown that while there are clear strengths of each approach, there is no one approach that is a cheap and easy path to the Holy Grail. This talk surveys the major computer-based approaches to learning and training. Demonstrations will illustrate the situations where each approach provides advantages and provide design rules that can be applied in other projects. Evidence is offered to show that CAI approaches can reduce time to learn significantly (approximately 30%), while facilitating modest improvement in performance (an increase of 10%). In contrast, the ITS model can facilitate a much higher performance improvement (one standard deviation), but at a higher cost (e. g., more computing resources or narrow topic area). The next generation of interactive learning environments, e. g. environments that support more active construction on the part of the learner, and not just information delivery, have the potential for still greater benefits. Elliot Soloway is an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan. He directs the "Highly-interactive computing environments" project in the Artificial Intelligence Lab. He and his group are exploring the roles that multimedia-based, computer-aided design environments will play in restructuring learning and training. He is the editor of the new journal, Interactive Learning Environments (Ablex Press, Inc.), serves on the Editorial Board of Human Computer Interaction, Journal of Educational Computing Research, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, and has authored over 100 papers. Soloway has consulted for IBM, Digital Equipment Corp., Apple Computer, Arthur Anderson & Company, Educational Testing Service, and NASA. Lecture 4: 3:00pm - 3:55pm EST Advanced User Interface Architectures and Software Tools Bill Curtis, MCC Human Interface Laboratory The next generation of user interfaces will require computers to resolve ambiguous inputs that may arrive simultaneously from modalities such as voice, gesture, handwriting, etc. MCC's Human Interface Laboratory is integrating the knowledge-based and media-based capabilities needed for supporting these multi-modal interfaces. After discussing the capabilities of current generation interface toolkits such as NeXTStep, MacApp, and OSF Motif, this talk will discuss the technology developed and lessons learned in our research on building such interface capabilities. At the core of our multidisciplinary research is a blackboard system tailored for user interface requirements. It provides a powerful runtime architecture for integrating interface modalities and interpreting ambiguous inputs. For instance, in building paper-and-pencil-like interfaces we are integrating neural net and parsing capabilities for recognizing sketched input that can range from characters, to equations, to diagrammatic languages. The ability to integrate knowledge-based and media- based capabilities will become more important as applications grow more data intensive and place a greater premium on searching large information spaces, creating interactive graphic representations of the data or objects, and in providing tutorial assistance on-line (self-training interfaces). Dr. Curtis is Director of MCC's Human Interface Laboratory pursuing research on a new generation of user interface technology. Previously he was a Director in MCC's Software Technology Program, which is developing a new generation of technology for supporting the design of large systems. Prior to joining MCC, Dr. Curtis was the Manager of Programming Trends Analysis at ITT's Programming Technology Center; Manager of Software Management Research in the Space Division of General Electric, and Research Assistant Professor at the University of Washington. He has published over 80 articles on software engineering, human-computer interaction, and the management of large systems development, and has edited two books: Human Factors in Software Development (an IEEE tutorial) and Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 1985 Proceedings). He is on the editorial boards of the IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Human-Computer Interaction, the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, and the Journal of Systems and Software. Discussion: 4:05pm - 5:00pm EST Presenters will accept phoned-in questions from the live satellite audience.