Re: JavaMemoryModel: Race-proof mutable objects and synchronized constructors

From: Joseph Bowbeer (
Date: Sat Dec 02 2000 - 02:55:50 EST

For the secure classes you're talking about, option 2 is easier on the
class authors, and there's a lot to be said for that.

However, what is the cost of this option in classes that do not have
synchronized methods? Examples: the Collections classes, Swing, and
most of my code. (In the thread-safe Java code I've been writing the
past three years, I rely heavily on external, coarse-grained locking.)

----- Original Message -----
From: "Bill Pugh" <>
To: <>
Sent: Friday, December 01, 2000 6:18 PM
Subject: Race-proof mutable objects and synchronized constructors

Say you want to design a class Foo that is designed to work correctly,
even if references to Foo objects are passed between threads via a data
race (perhaps maliciously so). Strings are one example of a class we
need to have be race-proof.

For immutable classes, we have a solution: use final fields. But what
about for mutable classes?

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