
Project 5  Prolog Programming
Due 11:59pm, Nov 22,Nov 25, 2016
Introduction
For this project you will need to implement a number of functions
in Prolog that together can be used to find solutions for mazes. This
project will provide experience dealing with logic, recursion, lists,
and other features in Prolog.
Getting Started
Download the following archive file p5.zip
and extract its contents.
Along with files used to make direct submissions to the
submit server (submit.jar, .submit,
submit.rb), you will
find the following project files:
 Your Prolog program  logic.pl
 Public tests
 Expected outputs for public tests
 Public test driver  goTest.pl
The logic.pl file you downloaded contains a number of
utility functions, and comments describing the functions
you are required to implement.
Note that you must implement your functions with the exact
parameters specified, or else the submit server
tests will fail.
Running Public Tests
The public tests are set up as a number of Prolog programs
that will call functions from your logic.pl code and test
them with different inputs. To execute a public test, you
need to load both logic.pl and the public test file into
the Prolog interpreter, then call the appropriate public test
function for each logic.pl function you were required to
implement. The public test functions are:
 public_ackermann
 public_prod
 public_fill
 public_genN
 public_genXY
 public_flat
 public_isprime
 public_inlang
 public_stats
 public_validPath
 public_findDistance
 public_solve
Here's an example of how to run a public test manually:
swipl % start prolog
? working_directory(C,'path to p5'). % go to p5 directory
% start here if using swiplwin.exe
? ['logic.pl']. % load your code
? ['publicMaze1.pl']. % load public test
? maze1_public. % run public test
etc...
On Windows machines, opening the logic.pl file with swiplwin.exe
will bring up a window running the Prolog interpreter in the
directory containing logic.pl, so it is not necessary to
start swipl or call the function working_directory manually.
Alternatively, you may run all of the public tests at once using
the goTest.pl public test driver provided.
It will load logic.pl and all the public tests, then run all
public tests at once.
swipl % start prolog
? working_directory(C,'path to p5'). % go to p5 directory
? ['goTest.pl']. % load test driver
% start here if using swiplwin.exe
? run. % run all public tests
Prolog Library Functions Allowed
For this project you should write most code yourself, and
only use Prolog's builtin and library functions where
absolutely necessary. You are not allowed to use any
library or builtin functions unless they are explicitly
listed as permitted functions. The only builtin function
that you are allowed to use for this project are:
Type
 Builtin Functions

Arithmetic
 +, , *, div, mod, <, =<, >, >=, is, =:=, =\=, floor, float, sqrt

Logic
 ==, =, \==, \=, \+

Lists
 [HT], [H1,H2T], [H1,H2,H3T], etc.

List Utilities
 member(X,L), append(X,Y,R), sort(X,R)

Cut
 !

Collecting Solutions
 findall(X,Y,R), setof(X,Y,R)

Since many functions you need to implement are similar to
those from previous projects, you may find it useful to
examine your previous solutions when writing your
solution in Prolog.
Part 1: Recursion
Write the following recursive functions:
Name
 Parameters
 Example

ackermann(M,N,R)

M=int
N=int
• R=the ackermann function on M and N
• M and N will always be given

? ackermann(0,1,R). R=2.
? ackermann(2,3,R). R=9.
? ackermann(3,4,R). R=125.

prod(L,R)

L=list of ints
R=product of elements of L
• R=1 if L=[]
• L will always be given

? prod([1,2,3],R). R=6.
? prod([],R). R=1.

fill(N,X,R)

N=int
X=int
R=list containing N copies of X
• R=[] if N=0
• N will always be given
• Either X or R will be given

? fill(4,2,R). R=[2,2,2,2].
? fill(4,X,[2,2,2,2]). X=2.

genN(N,R)

N=nonzero positive int
R=int values between 0 and N1, inclusive, in ascending order
• N will always be given

? genN(2,R).
R=0;
R=1.

genXY(N,R)

N=nonzero positive int
R=pairs [X,Y], where X & Y are values between 0 and N1, inclusive,
generated in ascending lexicographic order.
• N will always be given

? genXY(2,R).
R=[0,0];
R=[0,1];
R=[1,0];
R=[1,1].

flat(L,R)

L=list
R=elements of L concatenated together, preserving relative order,
first placing nonlist elements in a list if necessary
• R=[] if L=[]
• L will always be given
• Only removes one level of list, unlike flatten/2

? flat([[1],[2,3]],R).
R=[1,2,3].
? flat([1,[2,3]],R).
R=[1,2,3].
? flat([[1,[2]],3],R).
R=[1,[2],3].

is_prime(N)

N=int
Is true if the integer N is a prime number.
• A simple algorithm for primality checking is to start with
the axioms that 2 and 3 are prime numbers (1 is not). Then, an arbitrary
number N greater than 3 is prime iff N is not divisible by D, for
all D from sqrt(N) up to N1. You will need to implement a helper
function to do this iteration. You will
find =\=, float, and sqrt functions
helpful. Note: your algorithm should aim to reject large nonprimes
quickly, or you might experience timeouts.
• N will always be given

? is_prime(3). true.
? is_prime(4). false.
? is_prime(31). true.

in_lang(L)
 L=list of atoms a and b
Is true if the list L, viewed as a string, is
contained in the language S defined by the following CFG:
S > T  V
T > UU
U > aUb  ab
V > aVb  aWb
W > bWa  ba
Put another way, the language S is specified as follows:
S = {a^n b^n a^m b^m  n,m >= 1} U {a^n b^m a^m b^n  n,m >= 1} .
• L will always be given

? in_lang([a,a,b,b,a,b]).
true.
? in_lang([a,a,a,b,b,a,a,b,b,b]).
true.
? in_lang([a,a,a,b,b,a,b,b,b]).
false.

Part 2: Maze solver
Maze descriptions
For this project, the mazes you will compute with will be
given as Prolog databases. In particular, you will be given
three kinds of facts
 maze(N,SX,SY,EX,EY). This fact
indicates that:
 The height and width of the maze is N cells,
 The default starting position is SX,SY, and
 The ending position is EX,EY.
 cell(X,Y,Dirs,Wts). A fact of this form describes
a cell in the maze. In particular, it says that the cell
at position X,Y, has open walls as described by Dirs,
the list of directions. More precisely:
 The list Dirs will contain at most one of each of the atoms
u, d, l, and r, which designate openings
going up, down, left, or right, respectively.
 Recall from project one that the coordinate system places 0,0 in the
upper left corner of the maze.
 The Wts component of the fact indicates the weights granted
to paths following the respective direction. That is, each element in
Dirs has a corresponding weight in Wts.
As an example, the fact cell(1,0,[r,d],[16.6, 0.89])
indicates that the cell at 1,0 has two open walls: one leading to the right
(to cell 2,0) with weight 16.6, and one leading down (to cell 1,1) with
weight 0.89.
 path(N,SX,SY,Dirs). This fact describes a path
named N (a string) through the maze starting at position
SX,SY and following the directions given by Dirs. For
example, the fact
path('path1',0,3,[u,r,u,l,u]) indicates
that there is a path 'path1' that starts at 0,3 and follows the
given directions to end up at position 0,0.
Based on these maze facts, you need to implement
the following functions for solving a maze.
Name
 Parameters
 Example

stats(U,D,L,R)

U,D,L,R=number of cells with openings up, down, left, and right.

? stats(U,D,L,R).
U = D, D = 8,
L = R, R = 7.

validPath(N,W)

N=name of valid path (only goes through openings)
W=float value for weight of path (rounded to 4 decimal places)
• Return valid paths in same order as in database
• Use round4(X,Y) : T1 is X*10000, T2 is round(T1), Y is T2/10000.
• Apply round4() to final float weight, not intermediate sums.

? validPath(N,W).
N = path1,
W = 99.9958;
N = path2,
W = 103.779.

findDistance(L)

L=list of coordinates of cells at distance D from maze start
• Elements of L are in form [D, [[X1,Y2],[X2,Y2],...]]
• Values of D range from 0 to D, in ascending order
• D=distance of cell furthest from start
• Cell coordinates [X,Y] are in lexicographic order

? findDistance(L).
L = [[0, [[0, 3]]],
[1, [[0, 2]]],
[2, [[1, 2]]],
[3, [[1, 1],[2,2]],
..., [6, [[3, 2]]].

solve

• True if maze is solvable, fails otherwise.

? solve.
true.

This is obviously a terse description; if you have further
questions (once you have completed the rest of the assignment), ask the
course staff.
Hints
 Unlike previous projects, you may be able to rely on
Prolog's backtracking to find multiple possible solutions
through multiple queries.
 The Prolog functions findall will collect all
results from a function using backtracking. The function
setof will, in addition, sort the result and remove
duplicates. These functions are used in the public tests.
Submission
You can submit your project in two ways:

Submit your file logic.ml directly to the
submit server
by clicking on the submit link in the column "web submission".
Next, use the submit dialog to submit your logic.ml file.
Select your file using the "Browse" button,
then press the "Submit project!" button.

You may also submit directly by executing a Java program on a computer
with Java and network access. Use the submit.jar file
from the archive p5.zip,
To submit, go to the directory containing your project, then either
execute submit.rb (preferred method) by typing:
ruby submit.rb
or use the java jar directly using the following command:
java jar submit.jar
You will be asked to enter your class account and password, then
all files in the directory (and its subdirectories) will be
put in a jar file and submitted to the submit server.
If your submission is successful you will see the message:
Successful submission # received for project 5
Academic Integrity
The Campus Senate has adopted a policy asking students to include the
following statement on each assignment in every course: "I pledge on
my honor that I have not given or received any unauthorized assistance
on this assignment." Consequently your program is requested to
contain this pledge in a comment near the top.
Please carefully read the academic honesty section of the
course syllabus. Any evidence of impermissible cooperation on
projects, use of disallowed materials or resources, or unauthorized
use of computer accounts, will be submitted to the Student
Honor Council, which could result in an XF for the course, or
suspension or expulsion from the University. Be sure you understand
what you are and what you are not permitted to do in regards to
academic integrity when it comes to project assignments. These
policies apply to all students, and the Student Honor Council does not
consider lack of knowledge of the policies to be a defense for
violating them. Full information is found in the course
syllabusplease review it at this time.
