For this project you will need to implement a number of functions in Prolog that together can be used to find solutions for mazes and evaluating boolean formulae.

This project will provide experience dealing with logic, recursion, lists, and other features in Prolog.

Getting Started

Download the following archive file and extract its contents.

You will find the following project files:

  • Your Prolog program -
  • Public tests
  • Expected outputs for public tests
    • publicRecursion1.out
    • publicRecursion2.out
    • publicMaze1.out
    • publicMaze2.out
  • Public test driver -
    Maze Converter - convertMaze.rb

The file you downloaded contains a number of utility functions, and comments describing the functions you are required to implement.

Note that you must implement your functions with the exact parameters specified, or else the submit server tests will fail.

Running Public Tests

The public tests are set up as a number of Prolog programs that will call functions from your code and test them with different inputs. To execute a public test, you need to load both and the public test file into the Prolog interpreter, then call the appropriate public test function for each function you were required to implement. The public test functions are:

  • public_prod
  • public_fill
  • public_genN
  • public_genXY
  • public_flat
  • public_stats
  • public_validPath
  • public_findDistance
  • public_solve

Here’s an example of how to run a public test manually:

swipl                               % start prolog
?- [''].                    % load your code
?- [''].              % load public test
?- maze1_public.                    % run public test

If you are having trouble making the public tests run, you may have to change the working directory of Prolog using the working_directory(C,'path to p6') command.

Alternatively, you may run all of the public tests at once using the public test driver provided. It will load and all the public tests, then run all public tests at once.

swipl                                 % start prolog
?- working_directory(C,'path to p6'). % go to p6 directory
?- [''].                     % load test driver
?- run.                               % run all public tests

Prolog Library Functions Allowed

For this project you should write most code yourself, and only use Prolog’s built-in and library functions where absolutely necessary. You are not allowed to use any library or built-in functions unless they are explicitly listed as permitted functions. The only built-in function that you are allowed to use for this project are:

Type Built-in Functions
Arithmetic +, -, *, div, mod, <, =<, >, >=, is, =:=
Logic ==, =, \==, \=, \+
Lists [H|T], [H1,H2|T], [H1,H2,H3|T], etc.
List Utilities member(X,L), append(X,Y,R), sort(X,R)
Cut !
Collecting Solutions findall(X,Y,R), setof(X,Y,R)

Since many functions you need to implement are similar to those from previous projects, you may find it useful to examine your previous solutions when writing your solution in Prolog.

Part 1: Recursion

Write the following recursive functions:

  • prod(L,R)
    • L=list of ints
    • R=product of elements of L
      • R=1 if L=[]
      • L will always be given
    • ?- prod([1,2,3],R). gives R=6
    • ?- prod([],R). gives R=1
  • fill(N,X,R)
    • N=int
    • X=int
    • R=list containing N copies of X
    • R=[] if N=0
    • N will always be given
    • Either X or R will be given
    • ?- fill(4,2,R). gives R=[2,2,2,2]
    • ?- fill(4,X,[2,2,2,2]). gives X=2
  • genN(N,R)
    • N=non-zero positive int
    • R=int values between 0 and N-1, inclusive, in ascending order
    • N will always be given
    • ?- genN(2,R). gives R=0;R=1.
  • genXY(N,R)
    • N=non-zero positive int
    • R=pairs [X,Y], where X & Y are values between 0 and N-1, inclusive, generated in ascending lexicographic order.
    • N will always be given
    • ?- genXY(2,R). R=[0,0];R=[0,1];R=[1,0];R=[1,1].
  • flat(L,R)
    • L=list
    • R=elements of L concatenated together, preserving relative order, first placing non-list elements in a list if necessary
    • R=[] if L=[]
    • L will always be given
    • Only removes one level of list, unlike flatten/2
    • ?- flat([[1],[2,3]],R). R=[1,2,3].
    • ?- flat([1,[2,3]],R). R=[1,2,3].
    • ?- flat([[1,[2]],3],R). R=[1,[2],3].

Part 2: Maze solver

Maze descriptions

For this project, the mazes you will compute with will be given as Prolog databases. In particular, you will be given three kinds of facts

  • maze(N,SX,SY,EX,EY). This fact indicates that:
    • The height and width of the maze is N cells,
    • The default starting position is SX,SY, and
    • The ending position is EX,EY.
  • cell(X,Y,Dirs,Wts) A fact of this form describes a cell in the maze. In particular, it says that the cell at position X,Y, has open walls as described by Dirs, the list of directions. More precisely:

    • The list Dirs will contain at most one of each of the atoms u, d, l, and r, which designate openings going up, down, left, or right, respectively.

      • Recall from project one that the coordinate system places 0,0 in the upper left corner of the maze.
    • The Wts component of the fact indicates the weights granted to paths following the respective direction. That is, each element in Dirs has a corresponding weight in Wts. As an example, the fact cell(1,0,['r','d'],[16.6, 0.89]) indicates that the cell at 1,0 has two open walls: one leading to the right (to cell 2,0) with weight 16.6, and one leading down (to cell 1,1) with weight 0.89.

    • path(N,SX,SY,Dirs) This fact describes a path named N (a string) through the maze starting at position SX,SY and following the directions given by Dirs. For example, the fact path('path1',0,3,[u,r,u,l,u]) indicates that there is a path ‘path1’ that starts at 0,3 and follows the given directions to end up at position 0,0.

Based on these maze facts, you need to implement the following functions for solving a maze.

  • stats(U,D,L,R)
    • U,D,L,R=number of cells with openings up, down, left, and right.
    • ?- stats(U,D,L,R). U = D, D = 8, L = R, R = 7.
  • validPath(N,W)
    • N=name of valid path (only goes through openings)
    • W=float value for weight of path (rounded to 4 decimal places)
    • Return valid paths in same order as in database
    • Use round4(X,Y) :- T1 is X*10000, T2 is round(T1), Y is T2/10000.
    • Apply round4() to final float weight, not intermediate sums.

    • ?- validPath(N,W). N = path1, W = 99.9958; N = path2, W = 103.779.
  • findDistance(L)
    • L=list of coordinates of cells at distance D from maze start
    • Elements of L are in form [D, [[X1,Y2],[X2,Y2],…]]
    • Values of D range from 0 to D, in ascending order
    • D=distance of cell furthest from start
    • Cell coordinates [X,Y] are in lexicographic order
    • ?- findDistance(L).

      L = [[0, [[0, 3]]],
      [1, [[0, 2]]],
      [2, [[1, 2]]],
      [3, [[1, 1],[2,2]],
      ..., [6, [[3, 2]]].
  • solve
  • True if maze is solvable, fails otherwise.
  • ?- solve. true.

The maze converter program convertMaze.rb may be used to convert simple maze files from Project 1 into Prolog for use as test cases. Run it as ruby convertMaze.rb >


Submit your file directly to the submit server by clicking on the submit link in the column “web submission.”