InfoVis 2004 Contest
Analysis and Visualization of the IV 2004 Contest Dataset
Contest webpage: http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~lviswana/InfoVis/iv2004.htm
Authors and Affiliations:
- Weimao Ke, Katy Borner and
The presented work aims to identify major papers and their interrelations,
topic trends over time, as well as major authors and their evolving
co-authorship networks in the IV Contest 2004 data set. Paper-citation,
co-citation, word co-occurrence, burst analysis and co-author analysis were
used to analyze the data set. The results are visually presented as graphs,
static Pajek  visualizations and interactive network layouts. This webpage
two-page paper submission.
- As an initial step,
we cleaned the data as described in the "Data Cleaning" section
- Microsoft Access, Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft DOM, Perl and Pajek
too were used
to analyze the dataset. Microsoft DOM and Microsoft Visual Basic were
used to migrate the data from the given XML format into Access compatible
- Using Microsoft
Access, queries were created to obtain different views of the dataset
such as number of co-authors per author, number of papers per author,
number of citations per author, etc.
- Pajek was used to
visualize these results in a user-friendly and intuitive manner.
- Microsoft Excel was
used to analyze and visualize the burst of words in the dataset. This
burst analysis was performed using Kleinberg's Burst algorithm  provided
as a part of the InfoVis CyberInfrastructure at http://iv.slis.indiana.edu
Data cleaning comprised 80% of the time spent on this project. The data was
converted into an MS-Access database provided below. Some results of the data
cleaning are also shown below.
1) Identifying Major Publication Venues (called sources) (314 unique sources originally provided ==> 106 unique sources after data cleaning )
- The source field was split
with delimiter on ":" and extra spaces were
- Records with identical
source descriptions were mapped in Visual Basic.
- After sorting the records,
additional source descriptions were mapped manually.
2) Identifying Unique Keywords (1859
unique keywords originally provided ==> 1753
unique keywords after data cleaning)
- The table "keyword conversion"
contains all 89 records of rules that were applied to identify a unique
list of keywords.
3) Identifying Unique Authors (1161 unique authors originally provided ==>
1036 unique authors after data cleaning )
- Duplicate author names were
identified by trimming the author name (e.g., Allen D. Maloney --> A.
D. M.), sorting the resulting list and eliminating duplicates (after manual checks).
addition, the last names of all authors were identified (e.g., F. David
Fracchia --> Fracchia), sorted, and duplicate authors were merged again
(after manual checks).
- Altogether 191 duplicate author names were identified. See
duplicate author ids.
- There was one paper
(acm673478) with no author.
4) Citation Year (Publication
- There were 8507 references
extracted from the original dataset. After elimination of duplicates (5),
there were 8502 references obtained. The publication year information for
non-ACM publications that are cited by papers in the IV data set was
retrieved for 8178 out of the total 8502 cited papers. The remaining 324
citations do not contain any year information (e.g., T.W. Rauber.
Tooldiag. Universidade de Lisboa, Dept. of Electrical Engineering.).
- This info will be used to
determine the total number of citations received each year (see Fig. 0.1)
and to map the continuously evolving co-author space (Fig. 3.1.1).
Complete cleaned database: http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~lviswana/iv04-contest.mdb
RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF DATABASE
Summary Statistics for the InfoVis 2004 Dataset
- The dataset was analyzed
using Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel to get the summary statistics
displayed in Figure 0.1. Raw data is available here.614 papers were published
between 1974 and 2004 (blue line).For each of the papers
published in a given year, the number of references made in the papers to
older publications was summed up (purple line). The total number of citation
counts received by papers published in a given year was also obtained
- There are 429 papers that
have an abstract, 424 papers with keywords, and 340 papers that have both
an abstract and keywords.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR INFO VIS
- The plot shows that
the number of Information Visualization papers is steadily increasing. The
drop in the more recent years is most likely due to the fact that all papers
are not available via the ACM library.
- As expected, older
papers had more time to attract citations and the total number of
references per paper increases as the number of produced papers
- Papers published in
1995, 2000, 2002 show a significant increase in number of citations
received as compared to citations received for papers published in 1999,
2001 or 1996. This might indicate the there were some papers published in
1999, 2000 or 2002 that were more significant milestones in Information
Visualization research and formed the basis for further research.
TASK 1: Static Overview of 10 Years of InfoVis
- Knowledge domain
visualization techniques  were
applied to map the semantic space of the data set via citation analysis
and co-citation analysis.
- The results of the
citation analysis are visualized in Pajek  and are shown in Image 1.1. All
papers that got cited at least 20 times (15 papers) and all the papers that
cited those papers and themselves got cited by other papers, at least 7 times
(44 papers), were selected. Elimination of duplicate entries resulted in 47
such papers, using which the below network was built. Each paper is
represented by a circle. Node size denotes the number of received citations.
Node color denotes year of publication. Ring color denotes the average
citation year. It is computed using the formula:
∑ (number of times the paper is cited in a year * year in
number of years in which the paper is cited.
- Links represent direct citation links between papers.
- The results of the co-citation analysis in Pajek are
shown in Image 1.2. For the paper co-citation analysis, only those papers
that have been cited simultaneously by another paper, no less than 5
times, were considered. The similarity weight has been computed as the
number of times these papers have received citations together.
- The references made by papers in the InfoVis dataset
have been classified as those within the contest data set called IV core
and others as ACM and non-ACM references. This is depicted in the diagram
below to facilitate easier understanding of the insights provided
- Out of the 8502
references, 1970 references are to papers within the contest data set,
called IV core. Only 1810 references are to other ACM publications and
4722 to non-ACM papers. These statistics suggest that the
InfoVis community seems to be surprisingly disconnected from other
- Image 1.1:
- Insight 1.1:
- Within IV core there
are two papers that received 70 citations: Furnas's 1986 paper on Generalized
fisheye views, and Robertson's 1991 paper on Cone trees:
animated 3D visualizations of hierarchical information. Tufte's 1986
paper on The visual display of quantitative information was
cited 40 times (see article_cited_count_withinset).
It is interesting to note that papers within the IV core dataset have
cited Bertin's 1983 book on Semiology of graphics: diagrams, networks
and maps, the most number of
times (14 times) amongst those in the non-ACM category. It is followed by
Spence, R. and Apperley, M. Database navigation: An office environment
for the professional, which was cited 9
times. The raw data for citation counts for articles, cited
outside the core ACM dataset are at article_cited_count_outside_ACM.
This reference is an example of one of the problems we encountered during
data cleaning. This reference has an Id associated with it 9 out of the
12 times that it has been referred. We found the 3 additional citations
that were lost on account of this problem in the dataset by manually
scanning the same. But it would be difficult to do the same across all
references in the dataset.
- Most nodes are a
shade of green indicating that they are more recent, being published in between 1993 and 1995, and being cited in 1997 or
beyond. This is also corroborated
by the distribution of the number of papers published per year and number
of citations per year in Figure 0.1.
- Similarly, the border
color for most nodes is a yellowgreen, indicating that the average
citation year is between 1997 and 2000.
- An interesting
anomaly in this dataset that is evident from the visualization is that
Robertson's 1999 paper The Document Lens, has been shown to be
cited during earlier years, such as 1996, 1997, and 1995. This is
impossible since a paper cannot be cited before it is published. This
error in the latest version of the dataset has been beautifully captured
in the visualization by the light yellowgreen color of the node (showing
the year of publication) and the surrounding green color for the border(showing
the average citation year). This shows that the quality of visualization
and interpretation of information thereof depends largely on the quality
of the dataset provided. A useful visualization capturing all the
necessary information in the dataset can also be used to detect such
errors in the data without having to peruse the raw data.
- Caption for exhibit:
The publication of the papers by Furnas 1986 and Robertson 1991 are the
highlights of research in Information Visualization. These papers have the
highest citation counts in the dataset, indicating that a large amount of
research was spawned by these papers.
- A link to an interactive visualization of
the paper co-citation network is also provided in SVG format. Check the
co-citation counts to view the growth of the paper-co-citation network on
the basis of similarity weights.
- Insight 1.2:
- The co-citation network places papers that are
frequently cited together closer in space. A different picture emerges as
compared to the citation network of individual papers in Image 1.1.The
paper by Robertson, Mackinlay & Card, Cone trees: animated 3D
visualization of hierarchical information appears to have among the
highest number of co-citations (27) along with Furnas's Generalized
fisheye views. It has been cited 19 times together with another of
their publications, The information visualizer: the information
workspace by Card, Robertson and Mackinlay.
- Not surprisingly, it
is the papers co-authored by the trio of Robertson, Mackinlay and Card
that have been cited together most often. These authors also happen to
have the strongest degree of collaboration and co-authorship amongst
themselves, as discussed below.
- Edward Tufte's 1986
paper on Visualization of quantitative information and
Mackinlay's 1991 paper on Cone trees: animated 3D visualization of
hierarchical information are not cited together very often (6),
since both deal with visual representations of different kinds of
information. This shows that the visualization reflects the underlying
nature of co-citation amongst papers in an accurate manner, consistent
with the nature of research presented in the papers.
- A noteworthy point is
that most of the highly co-cited papers were authored by Robertson et al,
during the early part of the nineties, when Infovis as a field of
research was taking roots. This was also the time when this trio was
working together in the field of Information Visualization at Xerox.
Co-citation network of highly cited papers and the major papers they
TASK 2: Characterize the major research areas and their evolution
- A burst analysis of
words in the InfoVis dataset was performed to study the evolution and
progress of different research areas. We used the burst detection code
available via http://iv.slis.indiana.edu
and the results of the burst algorithm were plotted in Microsoft Excel.
- The keywords were
organized in terms of years and a burst analysis was performed on these
keywords in order to detect those words that experience a sudden increase
or burst in their usage.
- The burst analysis
was performed on words contained in
The results of all three burst analyses (.xls file).
- Compound Terms in
the Keywords of the dataset (. txt input file).
- Keywords and Title (.txt input file).
- Keywords, Title and Abstracts (.txt input file).
BURST ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND TERMS IN THE
KEYWORDS OF THE DATASET
- Image 2.1:
- Insight 2.1:
(1994 – 1995)
(1999 – 2002)
(2000 – 2002)
(1983 – 1994)
(1983 – 1991)
- The burst analysis
of compound keywords indicates that the focus of research from 1985-1991
was user interface. Human factors also has a high burst
rate from 1974-1994.
- Around 1991 is the
time when research in Information Visualization (in terms of papers
published) also reached a peak. Taking 1991 as the year when Information
Visualization as a field finally began to mature, the burst analysis
indicates that the early years of research were focused on human factors
pertaining to information visualization, such as user interfaces, etc.
- There were some
seminal papers such as Generalized fisheye views and Cone
trees: animated 3D visualizations of hierarchical information that
were published during this period. Both of these papers deal with
different methods of viewing information, with the latter being an
improvement on the method described in the former.
- Given that these two
papers are the most cited papers in the IV contest data set we can draw
the conclusion that user interface and human factors formed the crux of
Information Visualization research in the early years of the field.
- Subsequently, as the
field matured, the focus shifted to information visualization as
a field in itself. This is indicated by the corresponding burst in information
visualization from 1998 onwards.
BURST ANALYSIS OF WORDS IN THE KEYWORDS, TITLE AND ABSTRACTS OF THE
- Image 2.2:
- Insight 2.2:
- The burst analysis
for individual words in keywords, titles and abstracts shows that in the
early years of InfoVis research, the focus was on algorithm, performance,
graphics, human, etc indicating that the early research
focused on creating useful and efficient algorithms, user-interface
- As the years
progressed, the research focus shifted to integrating this research with
the evolving Internet and parallelizing the algorithms, usage of network
technologies and other similar efforts. This is indicated by the burst in
the frequency of words such as parallel, internet,
network, dynamic, query etc.
On the basis of the burst analysis we can conclude
that the following were the main areas of research in Infovis
- User interface
- Human factors in
- Data mining and
- Techniques for
information visualization and representation
- Web applications and
network technologies in Infovis
TASK 3: Identify the relationship among researchers in InfoVis
Task 3.1: Where does a particular author/researcher fit within the research
areas defined in task 2?
- We extracted the
keywords from all the articles authored by George G. Robertson, Jock D. Mackinlay,
Stuart K. Card, Steven F. Roth, John T. Stasko and Ben Shneiderman. The
results for keyword counts for articles by
- Insight 3.1
- The analysis of the
keywords in papers authored by George G. Robertson show that his papers
were primarily focused on user interface and 3D graphics.
The phrase user interface occurred 3 times in keywords
pertaining to his articles. There are many keywords such as interface
metaphors, interactive animation, 3D user interface,
etc in his articles. This reflects the research trend during the late
eighties and early nineties of development of graphical user interface techniques.
This was before the widespread use of graphical user interface systems.
Early research in Infovis focused on evolving graphical user interface
techniques for visualizing information. The keyword analysis of articles
by Stuart K. Card and Jock D. Mackinlay also shows a similar trend. This
is not surprising since these authors have collaborated extensively
amongst themselves. This trio of authors has concentrated on development
of user interfaces and dealt with the human-computer interaction aspects
in information visualization.
- A keyword analysis of
articles authored by Steven F. Roth show a high presence of words such as
graphical user interface, interactive technique, intelligent interface
and visual query. This shows that Steven F. Roth and his
collaborators also concentrated on user interface design, albeit with a
focus on making user interface more interactive and 3D oriented. During
the early and mid-nineties, they were possibly extending the research
carried out by the trio of Robertson, Card and Mackinlay.
- Research in user
interface design formed the basis for further research in development of
specific techniques and visual metaphors for information representation.
A keyword analysis of articles authored by John T. Stasko shows the occurrence
of circular/radial display, hierarchical visualization, and algorithm
animation. This group was possibly focusing on developing specific
visual metaphors and techniques for information visualization. This
reflects the shift in research trends from development of basic user
interface design during the late eighties to more advanced and intuitive
information visualization during the mid-nineties.
- Similarly, the
explosion of information available via the Internet during the mid-nineties led
to a focus on data mining as a research area. This is reflected in the
analysis of keywords of articles by Daniel A. Keim which shows a high
presence of word such as large data sets, visualizing
multidimensional data sets, visualizing multivariate data and data
- An analysis of
keywords in articles by Chi shows the presence of words such as world
wide web, information ecologies and log file analysis, which
indicates that Chi and his collaborators primarily focused on web
applications and network technologies in Infovis.
- The keyword analysis
of words in papers authored by Ben Shneiderman show an interesting trend.
The phrase dynamic query occurs most often in his papers(8 times),
apart from tree map, direct manipulation, algorithm and
user interface . Ben Shneiderman is known to have extensively
worked in the area of user interface design and developing tree map
representations of information visualization. This fact is reflected in the
Task 3.2: What, if any, are the relationships between two or more or all
- Image 3.2 shows the
frequency of co-authorship among authors, according to three criteria:
all authors in IV core that published no less than 10 papers OR got cited
no less than 50 times OR have no less than 20 times of co-authorship with
other authors. 17 authors satisfied one or more of the three criteria.
All of their co-authors are shown, as well as the resulting 138 author nodes.
The node size corresponds to the number of papers published. Node color
denotes the total number of received citations. Edge thickness indicates
the number of times authors co-authored together.
- Image 3.2 shows the
results of a time series analysis of the very same data set. While the
node size was not changed, checking off the years leads to a progression
of the interconnectivity structure of the co-author network.
- Image 3.2:
- A link to the interactive visualization of
the co-author network has been provided in SVG format. Check the boxes
showing number of times authors co-authored in order to watch the network
- Insight 3.2:
- Scholars with more
than 10 papers are Ben Shneiderman (23 papers), Stuart K. Card (16), Jock
D. Mackinlay (15), Steven F. Roth (12), George Robertson (11), Daniel A.
Keim (11) and John T. Stasko (11).
- Authors that received
more than 100 citation links are Stuart K. Card (236), Jock D. Mackinlay (212), George G. Robertson (180)
and Ben Shneiderman (173).
- The top four authors
with the largest number of unique co-authors are Ben Shneiderman (23),
Stuart K. Card (17), Jock D. Mackinlay (17) and George G. Robertson (16).
- In IV core, 93.3% of
the authors have co-authored.
- The visualization
reveals that although Ben Shneiderman authored the most papers, Stuart
K.Card received the most citations for his work. One interesting finding
is that Ben Shneiderman has a higher number of paper publications and
citations to his credit than any of his co-authors. His strongest
collaboration has been with Christopher Ahlberg and Catherine Plaisant.
It is interesting that Ahlberg (73) is among the list of highly cited
authors despite having a relatively smaller number of publications (6) to
his credit. He could be among the newer set of scientists whose work in
Infovis research has significant impact on the field.
- Nodes representing Ed
H. Chi, Daniel Keim and Marc H. Brown are medium-sized and orange in
color indicating that they could be cited more in the future.
- Diverse clusters of
co-authors can be identified in the visualization. The trio of Stuart K.
Card, Jock D. Mackinlay and George G. Robertson has co-authored a number of
papers through their years at Xerox. These three authors have been the
forerunners of research in Information Visualization. These authors are
also the only group of people to have co-authored amongst themselves most
often, indicating a very successful research trio. Apart from Stuart K. Card,
who seems to have significant collaborations with both Peter Pirolli and
Ramana Rao, both Jock D. Mackinlay and George G. Robertson do not seem
to have any significant co-authors, despite the latter having the most
number of co-authors.
- The visualization
also indicates that most authors have not co-authored with the same
author very often, except for this trio. This could be because of the
evolving nature of the field and increasing number of scientists and
researchers joining the field, thus giving rise to newer collaborations.
This phenomenon could also explain the presence of most nodes in a light
green color and being very small in size. The group consisting
of nodes representing Lucy T. Nowell, Edward A.
Fox, Dennis J. Brueni, and their co-authors is one such example.
They possibly represent authors with fewer publications and fewer
citations to their credit, on account of their relatively recent entry
into the field.
- Steven F. Roth stands
out as an author who has published a relatively large number of papers
(12) and has received a sizeable number of citations (50) as well, but
who has co-authored with authors with widely varying citation counts to
their credit. His strongest collaboration has been with A. J.
- As per the dataset
Steven F. Roth has not co-authored with any author who has published more
papers than him; the same is true of Ben Shneiderman.
- Another set of
researchers who seem to have co-authored numerous times amongst
themselves are John Riedl, Ed H. Chi, Joseph
Konstan, Philip Barry and their co-authors.
- The presence of these
distinct clusters could also be due to the different research foci and
locations of these groups.
- Apart from the
presence of few nodes of large size and dark color, representing Stuart
K. Card, George G. Robertson, Jock D. Mackinlay, Ben Shneiderman, Steven
F. Roth, Peter Pirolli, George W. Furnas, etc, most of the nodes are
small and lighter in color. This could indicate that these and other
similar nodes represent authors who have been involved in Information
Visualization research since its earliest days, and are responsible for the
large number of paper publications and citations that can be attributed
- As expected George W.
Furnas has very few co-authors in this visualization, probably due to the
lesser number of scientists involved in Infovis research in its early
days. The color and size of the node representing him shows that he is
still widely cited.
- A link to a
video (590 KB) depicting the
frequency of collaborations among the authors is also provided.
Image 3.3(a) :
- A link to the interactive visualization
depicting the history of co-author network has been provided in SVG format.
Check years in chronological sequence to watch the growth of the co-author
network over time.
TIME SLICES OF THE EVOLVING CO-AUTHORSHIP
- Image 3.3(a) shows the
results of a time series analysis of the co-authorship network.
- A series of snapshots
of the different stages of evolution of the co-authorship network has
also been provided in Image 3.3(b)
- The link color
indicates the year in which the authors began collaborating. The node
color indicates the number of citations that they have received while the
node size depicts the number of papers that they have published.
- Alternatively watch
video (1.5 MB).
- As the video depicts,
Ben Shneiderman was amongst the earliest authors in the field of InfoVis.
His earliest collaborations were with J. Callahan, M. Weiser and D.
Hopkins, all of whom presumably did not focus on Infovis significantly,
as indicated by their node size and color.
- As the network
evolves, one can see the presence of Stuart K. Card, George G. Robertson,
Steven F. Roth and Jock D. Mackinlay among the earliest collaborators, as
- Subsequently, Daniel
Keim, Peter Pirolli, Ramana Rao and Christopher Ahlberg are added.
- The presence of a
sudden increase in the number of green colored links indicates that the
number of collaborations and authors in Infovis grew significantly in the
nineties. Sets of nodes worth noticing in this regard are those representing
Lucy Nowell, Guillemo A. Averboch and Scott A. Guyer. The green
color of the nodes and links between them could mean that this entire
group of researchers began collaborating amongst themselves during the
- Similarly Steven F.
Roth seems to have begun collaborations with many different authors such
as P. Lucas, Mei C. Chuah, Jeffery Senn, and C. C. Gomberg during the
early part of the nineties.
- In the early years,
one can see distinct clusters of authors, all of which are disconnected
from one another. As the years go by, one can see an increasing number of
connections among these isolated groups, suggesting greater collaborative
work, and overlapping research interests among them.
We presented simple statistics, burst analysis results of keywords and
semantic maps of major papers and authors based on the InfoVis Contest 2004
Given that the data set does not cover papers presented at the annual
InfoVis Conference in London or the annual SPIE
Visualization and Data Analysis Conference in San Jose, the new Information
Visualization journal, or books, only a partial picture of the domain
could be drawn.
Obviously, it would be very interesting to create a zoomable map of all
authors, papers or topics. Ideally, the set of authors, papers or topics that
is displayed could be interactively selected via sliders for attributes like
number of received citations, number of papers per author etc. A map showing
the interconnections among authors, their co-authors and their papers should be
of great interest as well . However we were limited in our efforts to
display this information on account of the features of visualizing software
such as Pajek .
Ketan K. Mane provided support in developing the visualizations for the
citation networks and co-author networks. We appreciate the enormous effort by
Jean-Daniel Fekete, Georges Grinstein and Catherine Plaisant and others in
providing the context data set. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation
CAREER Grant under IIS-0238261 and NSF grant DUE-0333623.
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