Alphonse Chapanis was professor emeritus of the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.  He was a founding father of ergonomics, the science of human factors in engineering design.  Chapanis' contributions during his 50-year career in the field of ergonomics are nearly countless.  Improving the safety of aircraft cockpits, the design of the standard telephone touchpad, teleconferencing, safety labels, colorblindness, night vision, digitized speech and human-computer interaction are just some of the projects he pioneered in his lifetime.  His lifetime achievements are accounted for in his autobiography, "The Chapanis Chronicles".  During the Cold War, Chapanis documented many of his observations in the U.S.S.R. for the U.S. government.  At the age of 85, though officially retired for 20 years, Chapanis continued to contribute to the field of ergonomics.  His book, "Human Factors in Engineering Design", was published in 1996 and is the principal book for ergonomics.
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The Chapanis Chronicles Ergonomics

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