BullFrog: Online Schema Evolution via Lazy Evaluation. Souvik Bhattacherjee, Gang Liao, Michael Hicks, and Daniel J. Abadi. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD), June 2021. To appear.

This paper presents a system called Bullfrog that performs immediate schema migration in a single step, without advanced warning or time to prepare, including backwards-incompatible migrations. Bullfrog implements concurrency control algorithms and data structures to enable concurrent processing of schema migration operations with post-migration transactions, while ensuring exactly-once migration of all old data into the physical layout required by the new schema. We implemented BullFrog as an open source extension to PostgreSQL. Experiments using this prototype over a TPC-C based workload (supplemented to include schema migrations) show that BullFrog can achieve zero-downtime migration to non-trivial new schemas with near-invisible impact on transaction throughput and latency.

  title = {BullFrog: Online Schema Evolution via Lazy Evaluation},
  author = {Souvik Bhattacherjee and Gang Liao and Michael Hicks and Daniel J. Abadi},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the {ACM} SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD)},
  year = 2021,
  month = jun,
  note = {To appear}

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