Publications of Ben Shneiderman

As of October 2015, following are Prof. Ben Shneiderman's articles in Refereed Journals(177), Refereed Conferences(145), Unrefereed Publications(73) and Chapters in Books(22)

Selected recent publications and technical reports are available on the HCIL Technical Reports page

The partial archive (up to 2011) of Ben Shneiderman's publications is maintained by the University of Maryland Library.

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Articles in Refereed Journals
Himelboim, I., Smith, M., Rainie, L., and Shneiderman, B., Classifying Twitter topic-networks using social network analysis, Social Media and Society (to appear, 2017).
Dempwolf, S. and Shneiderman, B., Event analytics for innovation trajectories: Understanding inputs and outcomes for entrepreneurial success, submitted for publication (September 2016).
Shneiderman, B. and Plaisant, C., Tick, tick, tick: The vitality of temporal data, submitted for review (September 2016).
Du, F., Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C., Malik, S., and Perer, A., Coping with volume and variety in temporal event sequences: Strategies for sharpening analytic focus, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2016).
Abstract: The growing volume and variety of data presents both opportunities and challenges for visual analytics. Addressing these challenges is needed for big data to provide valuable insights and novel solutions for business, security, social media, and healthcare. In the case of temporal event sequence analytics it is the number of events in the data and variety of temporal sequence patterns that challenges users of visual analytic tools. This paper describes 15 strategies for sharpening analytic focus that analysts can use to reduce the data volume and pattern variety. Four groups of strategies are proposed: (1) extraction strategies, (2) temporal folding, (3) pattern simplification strategies, and (4) iterative strategies. For each strategy, we provide examples of the use and impact of this strategy on volume and/or variety. Examples are selected from 20 case studies gathered from either our own work, the literature, or based on email interviews with individuals who conducted the analyses and developers who observed analysts using the tools. Finally, we discuss how these strategies might be combined and report on the feedback from 10 senior event sequence analysts.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{7429778, 
author={F. Du and B. Shneiderman and C. Plaisant and S. Malik and A. Perer}, 
journal={IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics}, 
title={Coping with Volume and Variety in Temporal Event Sequences: Strategies for Sharpening Analytic Focus}, 
year={2016}, 
volume={PP}, 
number={99}, 
pages={1-1}, 
keywords={Cleaning;Data visualization;Electronic mail;Focusing;Medical services;Sequences;Visual analytics;Big data;temporal data;temporal event sequences}, 
doi={10.1109/TVCG.2016.2539960}, 
ISSN={1077-2626}, 
month={},}
Malik, S., Du, F., Plaisant, C., and Shneiderman, B., High-Volume Hypothesis Testing: Systematic exploration of event sequence comparisons, ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 6, 1 (2016), Article 9, Pages 1–23.
Abstract: Cohort comparison studies have traditionally been hypothesis driven and conducted in carefully controlled environments (such as clinical trials). Given two groups of event sequence data, researchers test a single hypothesis (e.g., does the group taking Medication A exhibit more deaths than the group taking Medication B?). Recently, however, researchers have been moving toward more exploratory methods of retrospective analysis with existing data. In this article, we begin by showing that the task of cohort comparison is specific enough to support automatic computation against a bounded set of potential questions and objectives, a method that we refer to as High-Volume Hypothesis Testing (HVHT). From this starting point, we demonstrate that the diversity of these objectives, both across and within different domains, as well as the inherent complexities of real-world datasets, still requires human involvement to determine meaningful insights. We explore how visualization and interaction better support the task of exploratory data analysis and the understanding of HVHT results (how significant they are, why they are meaningful, and whether the entire dataset has been exhaustively explored). Through interviews and case studies with domain experts, we iteratively design and implement visualization and interaction techniques in a visual analytics tool, CoCo. As a result of our evaluation, we propose six design guidelines for enabling users to explore large result sets of HVHT systematically and flexibly in order to glean meaningful insights more quickly. Finally, we illustrate the utility of this method with three case studies in the medical domain.
BibTeX:
@article{Malik:2016:HHT:2896319.2890478,
 author = {Malik, Sana and Shneiderman, Ben and Du, Fan and Plaisant, Catherine and Bjarnadottir, Margret},
 title = {High-Volume Hypothesis Testing: Systematic Exploration of Event Sequence Comparisons},
 journal = {ACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst.},
 issue_date = {May 2016},
 volume = {6},
 number = {1},
 month = mar,
 year = {2016},
 issn = {2160-6455},
 pages = {9:1--9:23},
 articleno = {9},
 numpages = {23},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2890478},
 doi = {10.1145/2890478},
 acmid = {2890478},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {Cohort comparison, event sequences, visual analytics},
} 
Dunne, C., Ross, S. I., Shneiderman, B., and Martino, M., Readability metric feedback for aiding node-link visualization designers, IBM Journal of Research & Development 59, 2/3 (March-May 2015), paper 14, 16 pages.
Abstract: Analyzing network data can provide valuable insights in many diverse fields. However, designing node-link visualizations that effectively communicate the underlying network is challenging, as for every network there are many potential unintelligible or even misleading layouts. Automated layout algorithms have helped, but frequently generate ineffective visualizations. In order to build awareness of effective node-link visualization strategies, we detail new global readability metrics on a [0,1] continuous scale for node-node overlap, edge crossing angle, angular resolution, group overlap, and visualization coverage. In addition, we define novel node-and-edge readability metrics to provide more localized identification of where improvement is needed. We describe the trade-offs inherent in optimizing individual metrics as well as recommend metric optimizations for particular tasks. Our metrics are implemented in a JavaScript® API (application programming interface) to make them widely available to designers of web-based visualization tools, who can use metrics to direct users towards poor areas of the drawing. Our prototype system using the API aims to help designers and theorists evaluate and compare their layouts.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{7094971, 
author={Dunne, C. and Ross, S.I. and Shneiderman, B. and Martino, M.}, 
journal={IBM Journal of Research and Development}, 
title={Readability metric feedback for aiding node-link visualization designers}, 
year={2015}, 
volume={59}, 
number={2/3}, 
pages={14:1-14:16}, 
keywords={Algorithm design and analysis;Application programming interfaces;Data visualization;Layout;Measurement;Optimization;Readability metrics}, 
doi={10.1147/JRD.2015.2411412}, 
ISSN={0018-8646}, 
month={March},}
Plaisant, C., Wu, J., Hettinger, A., Z., Powsner, S., and Shneiderman, B., Novel user interface design for medication reconciliation: an evaluation of Twinlist, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association Mar 2015, 22 (2) 340-349.
Abstract: Objective The primary objective was to evaluate time, number of interface actions, and accuracy on medication reconciliation tasks using a novel user interface (Twinlist, which lays out the medications in five columns based on similarity and uses animation to introduce the grouping - www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/sharp/twinlist) compared to a Control interface (where medications are presented side by side in two columns). A secondary objective was to assess participant agreement with statements regarding clarity and utility and to elicit comparisons. Material and Methods A 1 × 2 within-subjects experimental design was used with interface (Twinlist or Control) as an independent variable; time, number of clicks, scrolls, and errors were used as dependent variables. Participants were practicing medical providers with experience performing medication reconciliation but no experience with Twinlist. They reconciled two cases in each interface (in a counterbalanced order), then provided feedback on the design of the interface. Results Twenty medical providers participated in the study for a total of 80 trials. The trials using Twinlist were statistically significantly faster (18%), with fewer clicks (40%) and scrolls (60%). Serious errors were noted 12 and 31 times in Twinlist and Control trials, respectively. Discussion Trials using Twinlist were faster and more accurate. Subjectively, participants rated Twinlist more favorably than Control. They valued the novel layout of the drugs, but indicated that the included animation would be valuable for novices, but not necessarily for advanced users. Additional feedback from participants provides guidance for further development and clinical implementations. Conclusions Cognitive support of medication reconciliation through interface design can significantly improve performance and safety.
BibTeX:
@article {Plaisantocu021
	author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Wu, Johnny and Hettinger, A. Zach and Powsner, Seth and Shneiderman, Ben},
	title = {Novel user interface design for medication reconciliation: an evaluation of Twinlist},
	year = {2015},
	doi = {10.1093/jamia/ocu021},
	publisher = {The Oxford University Press},
	abstract = {Objective The primary objective was to evaluate time, number of interface actions, and accuracy on medication reconciliation tasks using a novel user interface (Twinlist, which lays out the medications in five columns based on similarity and uses animation to introduce the grouping - www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/sharp/twinlist) compared to a Control interface (where medications are presented side by side in two columns). A secondary objective was to assess participant agreement with statements regarding clarity and utility and to elicit comparisons. Material and Methods A 1 {\texttimes} 2 within-subjects experimental design was used with interface (Twinlist or Control) as an independent variable; time, number of clicks, scrolls, and errors were used as dependent variables. Participants were practicing medical providers with experience performing medication reconciliation but no experience with Twinlist. They reconciled two cases in each interface (in a counterbalanced order), then provided feedback on the design of the interface. Results Twenty medical providers participated in the study for a total of 80 trials. The trials using Twinlist were statistically significantly faster (18\%), with fewer clicks (40\%) and scrolls (60\%). Serious errors were noted 12 and 31 times in Twinlist and Control trials, respectively. Discussion Trials using Twinlist were faster and more accurate. Subjectively, participants rated Twinlist more favorably than Control. They valued the novel layout of the drugs, but indicated that the included animation would be valuable for novices, but not necessarily for advanced users. Additional feedback from participants provides guidance for further development and clinical implementations. Conclusions Cognitive support of medication reconciliation through interface design can significantly improve performance and safety.},
	issn = {1067-5027},
	journal = {Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association}
}
}

Shneiderman, B. and Plaisant, C., Sharpening analytic focus to cope with big data volume and variety: Ten strategies for data focusing with temporal event sequences, Visualization Viewpoint, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 35, 3 (May/June 2015), 10-14.
Abstract: The growing volumes of time-stamped data available from sensors, social media sources, Web logs, and medical histories present remarkable opportunities for researchers and policy analysts. Although big data resources can provide valuable insights to help us understand complex systems and lead to better decisions for business, national security, cybersecurity, and healthcare, there are many challenges to dealing with the volume and variety of data. Data cleaning and data wrangling has received some attention with the development of application tools, but data focusing to sharpen the analytic focus remains a challenge. To address this challenge, this article provides a taxonomy of analytic focusing strategies for temporal event sequences.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{7111924, 
author={Shneiderman, B. and Plaisant, C.}, 
journal={Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE}, 
title={Sharpening Analytic Focus to Cope with Big Data Volume and Variety}, 
year={2015}, 
volume={35}, 
number={3}, 
pages={10-14}, 
keywords={Big Data;data analysis;Big Data volume;analytic focusing strategies;data focusing;event sequences;Data visualization;Medical diagnostic imaging;Social network services;Visual analytics;analytic focusing;big data;computer graphics;data cleaning;visual analytics;visual analytics tools;visualization}, 
doi={10.1109/MCG.2015.64}, 
ISSN={0272-1716}, 
month={May},}
Franklin, L. and Plaisant, C. and Minhazur R., Kazi and Shneiderman, B. (2014),TreatmentExplorer: an Interactive Decision Aid for Medical Risk Communication and Treatment Exploration. Interacting with Computers.
Abstract: Medical treatments carry unique benefits and risks which patients must understand in order to decide which option is best for them. Prior research has demonstrated that patients are ill-equipped to understand the statistical information presented to them through standard decision aids. We describe a prototype decision aid, TreatmentExplorer, which supports patients’ needs by presenting treatment outcome, onset of symptoms and treatment side effects using a novel graphic representation with staged animation and text-only narration. Our prototype also illustrates the use of a data-driven personalization approach by using electronic health record data. We report on expert reviews, a pilot study (n=24) and a main study (n=42), which characterize the benefits of TreatmentExplorer over a text-only decision aid as well as a version without staged animation, and conclude with guidelines for designers.
BibTeX:
@article{Franklin16122014,
author = {Franklin, Lyndsey and Plaisant, Catherine and Minhazur Rahman, Kazi and Shneiderman, Ben}, 
title = {TreatmentExplorer: an Interactive Decision Aid for Medical Risk Communication and Treatment Exploration},
year = {2014}, 
doi = {10.1093/iwc/iwu043}, 
abstract ={Medical treatments carry unique benefits and risks which patients must understand in order to decide which option is best for them. Prior research has demonstrated that patients are ill-equipped to understand the statistical information presented to them through standard decision aids. We describe a prototype decision aid, TreatmentExplorer, which supports patients’ needs by presenting treatment outcome, onset of symptoms and treatment side effects using a novel graphic representation with staged animation and text-only narration. Our prototype also illustrates the use of a data-driven personalization approach by using electronic health record data. We report on expert reviews, a pilot study ($n=24$) and a main study ($n=42$), which characterize the benefits of TreatmentExplorer over a text-only decision aid as well as a version without staged animation, and conclude with guidelines for designers.}, 
URL = {http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/16/iwc.iwu043.abstract}, 
eprint = {http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/16/iwc.iwu043.full.pdf+html}, 
journal = {Interacting with Computers} 
}

Chaturvedi, S., Dunne, C., Ashktorab, Z., Zachariah, R. and Shneiderman, B. (2014), Group-in-a-Box Meta-Layouts for Topological Clusters and Attribute-Based Groups: Space-Efficient Visualizations of Network Communities and Their Ties. Computer Graphics Forum, 33: pp 52–68.
Abstract: An important part of network analysis is understanding community structures like topological clusters and attribute-based groups. Standard approaches for showing communities using colour, shape, rectangular bounding boxes, convex hulls or force-directed layout algorithms remain valuable, however our Group-in-a-Box meta-layouts add a fresh strategy for presenting community membership, internal structure and inter-cluster relationships. This paper extends the basic Group-in-a-Box meta-layout, which uses a Treemap substrate of rectangular regions whose size is proportional to community size. When there are numerous inter-community relationships, the proposed extensions help users view them more clearly: (1) the Croissant–Doughnut meta-layout applies empirically determined rules for box arrangement to improve space utilization while still showing inter-community relationships, and (2) the Force-Directed layout arranges community boxes based on their aggregate ties at the cost of additional space. Our free and open source reference implementation in NodeXL includes heuristics to choose what we have found to be the preferable Group-in-a-Box meta-layout to show networks with varying numbers or sizes of communities. Case study examples, a pilot comparative user preference study (nine participants), and a readability measure-based evaluation of 309 Twitter networks demonstrate the utility of the proposed meta-layouts.
BibTeX:
@article{Chaturvedi:2014:GMT:2771672.2771678,
 author = {Chaturvedi, S. and Dunne, C. and Ashktorab, Z. and Zachariah, R. and Shneiderman, B.},
 title = {Group-in-a-Box Meta-Layouts for Topological Clusters and Attribute-Based Groups: Space-Efficient Visualizations of Network Communities and Their Ties},
 journal = {Comput. Graph. Forum},
 issue_date = {December 2014},
 volume = {33},
 number = {8},
 month = {dec},
 year = {2014},
 issn = {0167-7055},
 pages = {52-68},
 numpages = {17},
 url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cgf.12400},
 doi = {10.1111/cgf.12400},
 acmid = {2771678},
 publisher = {The Eurographs Association \&\#38; John Wiley \&\#38; Sons, Ltd.},
 address = {Chichester, UK},
 keywords = {H.1.2, H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation e.g. HCI]: User Interfaces D.2.2, I.3.6 Screen design, community structures, graph drawing, graphical user interfaces, group-in-a-box, information visualization, networks},
} 

Ahn J-w, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2014), "A Task Taxonomy of Network Evolution Analysis", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, March 2014, Vol 20(3), pp. 365-376.
Abstract: Visualization is a useful tool for understanding the nature of networks. The recent growth of social media requires more powerful visualization techniques beyond static network diagrams. One of the most important challenges is the visualization of temporal network evolution. In order to provide strong temporal visualization methods, we need to understand what tasks users accomplish. This study provides a taxonomy of the temporal network visualization tasks. We identify (1) the entities, (2) the properties to be visualized, and (3) the hierarchy of temporal features, which were extracted by surveying existing temporal network visualization systems. By building and examining the task taxonomy, we report which tasks have been covered so far and suggest additions for designing the future visualizations. We also present example visualizations constructed using the task taxonomy for a social networking site in order to validate the quality of the taxonomy.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahn2013Task,
  author = { Ahn, Jae-wook and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben },
  title = {A Task Taxonomy of Network Evolution Analysis},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (to appear 2013)},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20},
  number = {3},
  pages = {365--376},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2013.238},
  url = {http://www.computer.org/csdl/trans/tg/2014/03/ttg2014030365-abs.html}
}
Guerra-Gómez JA, Pack ML, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2013), "Discovering temporal changes in hierarchical transportation data: Visual analytic & text reporting tools", Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Vol 51(2) pp. 167-179.
Abstract: Analyzing important changes to massive transportation datasets like national bottleneck statistics, passenger data for domestic flights, airline maintenance budgets, or even publication data from the Transportation Research Record can be extremely complex. These types of datasets are often grouped by attributes in a tree structure hierarchy. The parent–child relationships of these hierarchical datasets allow for unique analytical opportunities, including the ability to track changes in the dataset at different levels of granularity, over time or between versions. For example, analysts can use hierarchies to uncover changes in the patterns of passengers flying in the United States over the last ten years, breaking down the data by states, cities, airports, and number of passengers. Exploring changes in travel patterns over time can help carriers make better decisions regarding their operations and long-range planning. This paper describes TreeVersity2, a web-based data comparison tool that provides users with information visualization techniques to find what has changed in a dataset over time. TreeVersity2 enables users to explore data that can be inherently hierarchical or not (by categorizing them by their attributes). An interactive textual reporting tool complements the visual exploration when the amount of data is very large. The results of two case studies conducted with transportation domain experts along with the results of an exit questionnaire are also described. TreeVersity2 preloaded with several demo datasets can be found at (http://treeversity.cattlab.umd.edu) along with several example videos.
BibTeX:
@article{GuerraGómez2015167,
title = "Discovering temporal changes in hierarchical transportation data: Visual analytics & text reporting tools ",
journal = "Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies ",
volume = "51",
number = "",
pages = "167 - 179",
year = "2015",
note = "",
issn = "0968-090X",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2014.11.007",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968090X14003301",
author = "John Alexis Guerra-Gómez and Michael L. Pack and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman",
keywords = "Information visualization",
keywords = "Visual analytics",
keywords = "Change visualization",
keywords = "Tree visualization",
keywords = "Difference visualization ",
abstract = "Abstract Analyzing important changes to massive transportation datasets like national bottleneck statistics, passenger data for domestic flights, airline maintenance budgets, or even publication data from the Transportation Research Record can be extremely complex. These types of datasets are often grouped by attributes in a tree structure hierarchy. The parent–child relationships of these hierarchical datasets allow for unique analytical opportunities, including the ability to track changes in the dataset at different levels of granularity, over time or between versions. For example, analysts can use hierarchies to uncover changes in the patterns of passengers flying in the United States over the last ten years, breaking down the data by states, cities, airports, and number of passengers. Exploring changes in travel patterns over time can help carriers make better decisions regarding their operations and long-range planning. This paper describes TreeVersity2, a web-based data comparison tool that provides users with information visualization techniques to find what has changed in a dataset over time. TreeVersity2 enables users to explore data that can be inherently hierarchical or not (by categorizing them by their attributes). An interactive textual reporting tool complements the visual exploration when the amount of data is very large. The results of two case studies conducted with transportation domain experts along with the results of an exit questionnaire are also described. TreeVersity2 preloaded with several demo datasets can be found at (http://treeversity.cattlab.umd.edu) along with several example videos. "
}


Himelboim I, Smith M and Shneiderman B (2013), "Tweeting apart: Applying network analysis to detect selective exposure clusters in Twitter", Communication Methods and Measures. Vol. 7(3-4), pp. 195-223.
Abstract: Twitter users see content mostly from the other users they select to follow. Networks of connected users on Twitter define the set of content to which each user is exposed. We developed a Selective Exposure Cluster (SEC) method to study these connected networks and their discussion patterns in Twitter. To illustrate the SEC method, we collected networks of connections among users who talked about a shared topic: the U.S. President’s State of the Union speech in 2012. Cluster analysis was applied to identify subgroups of users who were densely interconnected. These users followed users from their own cluster more than they connected to users in other clusters. In each cluster, the primary distributors of information—the hub users—were identified, along with the hashtags, hyperlinks, and top-mentioned usernames in the content of the messages. Each of these indicators was labeled in terms of its political orientation. An analysis of the resulting patterns of selective exposure suggests that users participate in fragmented interactions and form divided groups in which people tune in to a narrow segment of the wider range of politically oriented information sources. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed Selective Exposure Cluster method.
BibTeX:
@article{Himelboim2013Tweeting,
  author = {Himelboim, I. and Smith, M. and and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Tweeting apart: Applying network analysis to detect selective exposure clusters in Twitter},
  journal = {Communication Methods and Measures},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {7},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {195--223},
  doi = {10.1080/19312458.2013.813922},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19312458.2013.813922}
}
Sopan A, Freier M, Taieb-Maimon M, Plaisant C, Golbeck J and Shneiderman B (2013), "Exploring Data Distributions: Visual Design and Evaluation", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 29(2), pp. 77-95.
Abstract: Visual overviews of tables of numerical and categorical data have been proposed for tables with a single value per cell. This article addresses the problem of exploring tables with columns that consist of cells that are distributions, for example, the distributions of movie ratings or trust ratings in recommender systems, age distributions in demographic data, usage distributions in logs of telephone calls, and so on. This article expands on heatmap approaches and proposes a novel way of displaying and interacting with distribution data. The usability study demonstrates the benefits of the heatmap interface in providing an overview of the data and facilitating the discovery of interesting clusters, patterns, outliers and relationships between columns.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Sopan2013Exploring,
  author = {Sopan, Awalin and Freier, Manuel and Taieb-Maimon, Meirav and Plaisant,
	Catherine and Golbeck, Jennifer and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Exploring Data Distributions: Visual Design and Evaluation},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {77--95},
  number = {2},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10447318.2012.687676},
}
Shneiderman B, Plaisant C and Hesse, B. (2013), "Improving health and healthcare with interactive visualization tools", IEEE Computer, May 2013, Vol 46(5), pp. 58-66.
Abstract: Visualization and visual analytics re-searchers can contribute substantial technological advances to support the reliable, effective, safe, and validated systems required for personal health, clinical healthcare, and public health policymaking. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/KLlStIfGUZQ is a video showing how Oracle Health Sciences Institute is supporting research at the University of Maryland that is helping medical professionals analyze millions of patient records by developing a powerful data visualization tool called EventFlow.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman2013Improving,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Hesse, B.},
  title = {Improving health and healthcare with interactive visualization tools},
  journal = {IEEE Computer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {46},
  number = {5},
  pages = {58--66},
  doi = {10.1109/MC.2013.38},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6415893}
}
Sopan A, Rey, P.J., and Shneiderman, B. (2013), "The dynamics of web-based community safety groups: Lessons learned from the Nation of Neighbors", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Nov 2013, Vol 30(6), pp. 157-162.
Abstract: Community safety as a social issue has expanded its reach to web forums, portals and dedicated sites. This paper presents our study of 230 community safety groups whose members communicate through the Nation of Neighbors website. We analyze the patterns of activities within these communities along with their temporal dynamics. We demonstrate both feature-based and temporal analyses of the communities aiming at discovering the characteristics that make such communities successful. We use ManyNets’s capability to visualize the overview of multiple networks at once, demonstrating the value of visual analytics for community managers to better understand their communities. Using previously-developed health metrics we distinguish the successful communities, observe the influence of leaders in those communities and establish that larger communities are reporting more crime incidents rather than having discussion on other topics. To our surprise, we did not observe any strong association between the involvement of Law Enforcement personnel and activeness of the communities.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Sopan2013dynamics,
  author = {Sopan, A., Rey, P.J., and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {The dynamics of web-based community safety groups: Lessons learned
	from the Nation of Neighbors},
  journal = {IEEE Signal Processing Magazine},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {30},
  number = {6},
  pages = {157--162},
  doi = {10.1109/MSP.2013.2276513},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6633074}
}

Dunne, C., Shneiderman, B., Gove, R., Klavans, J., and Dorr, B. (2012), "Rapid understanding of scientific paper collections: Integrating statistics, text analysis, and visualization", Journal of the American Society for Information Systems and Technology, Nov 2012, Vol 63(12), pp. 2351-2369.
Abstract: Keeping up with rapidly growing research fields, especially when there are multiple interdisciplinary sources, requires substantial effort for researchers, program managers, or venture capital investors. Current theories and tools are directed at finding a paper or website, not gaining an understanding of the key papers, authors, controversies, and hypotheses. This report presents an effort to integrate statistics, text analytics, and visualization in a multiple coordinated window environment that supports exploration. Our prototype system, Action Science Explorer (ASE), provides an environment for demonstrating principles of coordination and conducting iterative usability tests of them with interested and knowledgeable users. We developed an understanding of the value aof reference management, statistics, citation text extraction, natural language summarization for single and multiple documents, filters to interactively select key papers, and network visualization to see citation patterns and identify clusters. A three-phase usability study guided our revisions to ASE and led us to improve the testing methods.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Dunne2012Rapid,
  author = {Dunne, Cody and Shneiderman, Ben and Gove, Robert and Klavans, Judith
	and Dorr, Bonnie},
  title = {Rapid understanding of scientific paper collections: Integrating
	statistics, text analytics, and visualization},
  journal = {J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {2351--2369},
  number = {12},
  month = {Nov},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  doi = {10.1002/asi.22652},
  issn = {1532-2882},
  issue_date = {December 2012},
  numpages = {19},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.22652}
}
Heer, J. and Shneiderman, B. (2012),"Interactive dynamics for visual analytics", Communications of the ACM 55, Vol 4, pp. 45-54.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Heer2012Interactive,
  author = {Heer, Jeffrey and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Interactive Dynamics for Visual Analysis},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM 55},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {45--54},
  url = {http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2146416}
}
Rios-Berrios M, Sharma P, Lee T.Y, Schwartz R and Shneiderman B (2012), "TreeCovery: Coordinated dual treemap visualization for exploring the Recovery Act", Government Information Quarterly, 2012, Vol 29(2), pp. 212–222.
Abstract: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act dedicated $787 billion to stimulate the U.S. economy and mandated the release of the data describing the exact distribution of that money. The dataset is a large and complex one; one of its distinguishing features is its bi-hierarchical structure, arising from the distribution of money through agencies to specific projects and the natural aggregation of awards based on location. To offer a comprehensive overview of the data, a visualization must incorporate both these hierarchies. We present TreeCovery, a tool that accomplishes this through the use of two coordinated treemaps. The tool includes a number of innovative features, including coordinated zooming and filtering and a proportional highlighting technique across the two trees. TreeCovery was designed to facilitate data exploration, and initial user studies suggest that it will be helpful in insight generation. RATB (Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board) has tested TreeCovery and is considering including the concept in their visual analytics.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Rios-Berrios2012TreeCovery:,
  author = {Miguel Rios-Berrios and Puneet Sharma and Tak Yeon Lee and Rachel
	Schwartz and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {TreeCovery: Coordinated dual treemap visualization for exploring
	the Recovery Act},
  journal = {Government Information Quarterly},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {212--222},
  number = {2},
  doi = {10.1016/j.giq.2011.07.004},
  issn = {0740-624X},
  keywords = {Recovery Act},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X11001055}
}
Sopan A, Noh AS-I, Karol S, Rosenfeld P, Lee G and Shneiderman B (2012), "Community Health Map: A geospatial and multivariate data visualization tool for public health datasets", Government Information Quarterly, 2012, Vol 29(2), pp. 223-234
Abstract: Trillions of dollars are spent each year on health care. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services keeps track of a variety of health care indicators across the country, resulting in a large geospatially multivariate data set. Current visualization tools for such data sets make it difficult to make multivariate comparisons and show the geographic distribution of the selected variables at the same time. Community Health Map is a web application that enables users to visualize health care data in multivariate space as well as geospatially. It is designed to aid exploration of this huge data repository and deliver deep insights for policy makers, journalists, consumer groups, and academic researchers. Users can visualize the geospatial distribution of a given variable on an interactive map, and compare two or more variables using charts and tables. By employing dynamic query filters, visualizations can be narrowed down to specific ranges and regions. Our presentation to policy makers and pilot usability evaluation suggest that the Community Health Map provides a comprehensible and powerful interface for policy makers to visualize health care quality, public health outcomes, and access to care in an effort to help them to make informed decisions about improving health care.
BibTeX:
@article{Sopan2012Community,
  author = {Awalin Sopan and Angela Song-Ie Noh and Sohit Karol and Paul Rosenfeld and Ginnah Lee and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Community Health Map: A geospatial and multivariate data visualization tool for public health datasets},
  journal = {Government Information Quarterly},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {29}
  number = {2},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X12000159},
  doi = {10.1016/j.giq.2011.10.002}
}
Wongsuphasawat K, Plaisant C, Taieb-Maimon M and Shneiderman B (2012), "Querying event sequences by exact match or similarity search: Design and empirical evaluation", Interacting with Computers. Vol. 24(2), pp. 55 - 68.
Abstract: Specifying event sequence queries is challenging even for skilled computer professionals familiar with SQL. Most graphical user interfaces for database search use an exact match approach, which is often effective, but near misses may also be of interest. We describe a new similarity search interface, in which users specify a query by simply placing events on a blank timeline and retrieve a similarity-ranked list of results. Behind this user interface is a new similarity measure for event sequences which the users can customize by four decision criteria, enabling them to adjust the impact of missing, extra, or swapped events or the impact of time shifts. We describe a use case with Electronic Health Records based on our ongoing collaboration with hospital physicians. A controlled experiment with 18 participants compared exact match and similarity search interfaces. We report on the advantages and disadvantages of each interface and suggest a hybrid interface combining the best of both.
BibTeX:
@article{Wongsuphasawat2012Querying,
  author = {Krist Wongsuphasawat and Catherine Plaisant and Meirav Taieb-Maimon and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Querying event sequences by exact match or similarity search: Design and empirical evaluation},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {24},
  number = {2},
  pages = {55--68},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953543812000124},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2012.01.003}
}
Goldberg L, Lide B, Lowry S, Massett HA, O'Connell T, Preece J, Quesenbery W and Shneiderman B (2011), "Usability and Accessibility in Consumer Health Informatics: Current Trends and Future Challenges", American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 40(5, Supplement 2), pp. S187 - S197.
Abstract: It is a truism that, for innovative eHealth systems to have true value and impact, they must first and foremost be usable and accessible by clinicians, consumers, and other stakeholders. In this paper, current trends and future challenges in the usability and accessibility of consumer health informatics will be described. Consumer expectations of their healthcare providers and healthcare records in this new era of consumer-directed care will be explored, and innovative visualizations, assistive technologies, and other ways that healthcare information is currently being provided and/or shared will be described. Challenges for ensuring the usability of current and future systems will also be discussed. An innovative model for conducting systematic, timely, user-centered research on consumer-facing websites at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the ongoing efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to promote health information technology (HIT) usability standards and evaluation criteria will also be presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Goldberg2011Usability,
  author = {Larry Goldberg and Bettijoyce Lide and Svetlana Lowry and Holly A. Massett and Trisha O'Connell and Jennifer Preece and Whitney Quesenbery and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Usability and Accessibility in Consumer Health Informatics: Current Trends and Future Challenges},
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {40},
  number = {5, Supplement 2},
  pages = {S187--S197},
  note = {Cyberinfrastructure for Consumer Health},
  doi = {10.1016/j.amepre.2011.01.009}
}
Lieberman M, Taheri S, Guo H, Mirrashed F, Yahav I, Aris A and Shneiderman B (2011), "Visual Exploration across Biomedical Databases", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics., Mar.-Apr., 2011. Vol. 8(2), pp. 536 -550.
Abstract: Though biomedical research often draws on knowledge from a wide variety of fields, few visualization methods for biomedical data incorporate meaningful cross-database exploration. A new approach is offered for visualizing and exploring a query-based subset of multiple heterogeneous biomedical databases. Databases are modeled as an entity-relation graph containing nodes (database records) and links (relationships between records). Users specify a keyword search string to retrieve an initial set of nodes, and then explore intra- and interdatabase links. Results are visualized with user-defined semantic substrates to take advantage of the rich set of attributes usually present in biomedical data. Comments from domain experts indicate that this visualization method is potentially advantageous for biomedical knowledge exploration.
BibTeX:
@article{Lieberman2011Visual,
  author = {Lieberman, M.D. and Taheri, S. and Huimin Guo and Mirrashed, F. and Yahav, I. and Aris, A. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Visual Exploration across Biomedical Databases},
  journal = {IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {536--550},
  doi = {10.1109/TCBB.2010.1}
}
Shneiderman B, Dunne C, Sharma P and Wang P (2011), "Innovation trajectories for information visualizations: Comparing treemaps, cone trees, and hyperbolic trees", Information Visualization, 2011, Vol 11(2), pp. 87-105.
Abstract: This paper reviews the trajectory of three information visualization innovations: treemaps, cone trees, and hyperbolic trees. These three ideas were first published around the same time in the early 1990s, so we are able to track academic publications, patents, and trade press articles over almost two decades. We describe the early history of each approach, problems with data collection from differing sources, appropriate metrics, and strategies for visualizing these longitudinal data sets. This paper makes two contributions: (1) it offers the information visualization community a history of how certain ideas evolved, influenced others, and were adopted for widespread use and (2) it provides an example of how such scientometric trajectories of innovations can be gathered and visualized. Guidance for designers is offered, but these conjectures may also be useful to researchers, research managers, science policy analysts, and venture capitalists.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Innovation,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Dunne, Cody and Sharma, Puneet and Wang, Ping},
  title = {Innovation trajectories for information visualizations: Comparing treemaps, cone trees, and hyperbolic trees},
  journal = {Information Visualization},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {87--105},
  doi = {10.1177/1473871611424815}
}
Shneiderman B, Preece J and Pirolli P (2011), "Realizing the value of social media requires innovative computing research", Commun. ACM. New York, NY, USA, Sep, 2011. Vol. 54, pp. 34-37. ACM.
Abstract: How social media are expanding traditional research and development topics for computer and information scientists.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Realizing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Preece, Jennifer and Pirolli, Peter},
  title = {Realizing the value of social media requires innovative computing research},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {34--37},
  doi = {10.1145/1995376.1995389}
}
Shneiderman B (2011), "Social discovery in an information abundant world: Designing to create capacity and seek solutions", Information Services & Use. 2011, Vol 31(1), pp. 3-13.
Abstract: The first generation of search tools provided remarkable capabilities to many researchers for finding specific information, navigating to desired websites or tracking down needed documents. A second generation of tools is helping researchers conduct exploratory search in situations where the goals are less clear, where complete coverage is necessary, and where proof of absence is required (patents, legal precedents, etc.). However, the third generation of tools turns search into social discovery, in which colleagues, informal groups, companies, non-profit organizations, professional societies, and international federations are motivated to find, filter, organize, annotate and summarize voluminous information resources. The Reader-to-Leader framework describes the usability and sociability design features needed to motivate readers, contributors, collaborators and leaders. The Social Discovery framework, proposed in this paper, suggests that effective design enables people to engage in dialogs over weeks and months to create capacity (in the manner described by the Reader-to-Leader framework), and become more effective solution seekers. Much work remains to be done to validate these social discovery frameworks and refine them to fit diverse contexts.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Social,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Social discovery in an information abundant world: Designing to create capacity and seek solutions},
  journal = {Information Services and Use},
  publisher = {IOS Press Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {31}
  pages = {3--13},
  doi = {10.3233/ISU-2011-0628}
}
Wang TD, Wongsuphasawat K, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2011), "Extracting Insights from Electronic Health Records: Case Studies, a Visual Analytics Process Model, and Design Recommendations", Journal of Medical Systems. New York, NY, USA, Oct., 2011. Vol. 35(5), pp. 1135-1152. Plenum Press.
Abstract: Current electronic health record (EHR) systems facilitate the storage, retrieval, persistence, and sharing of patient data. However, the way physicians interact with EHRs has not changed much. More specifically, support for temporal analysis of a large number of EHRs has been lacking. A number of information visualization techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, due to their limited application to a single case study, the results are often difficult to generalize across medical scenarios. We present the usage data of Lifelines2 (Wang et al. 2008), our information visualization system, and user comments, both collected over eight different medical case studies. We generalize our experience into a visual analytics process model for multiple EHRs. Based on our analysis, we make seven design recommendations to information visualization tools to explore EHR systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Wang2011Extracting,
  author = {Wang, Taowei David and Wongsuphasawat, Krist and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Extracting Insights from Electronic Health Records: Case Studies, a Visual Analytics Process Model, and Design Recommendations},
  journal = {Journal of Medical Systems},
  publisher = {Plenum Press},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {35},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1135--1152},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-011-9718-x},
  doi = {10.1007/s10916-011-9718-x}
}
Wong PC, Chen C, Gorg C, Shneiderman B, Stasko J and Thomas J (2011), "Graph Analytics - Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. Sept-Oct. 2011, Vol. 31(5), pp. 18-29.
Abstract: Graph analytics is one of the most influential and important R&D topics in the visual analytics community. Researchers with diverse backgrounds from information visualization, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, graph drawing, and data mining have pursued graph analytics from scientific, technical, and social approaches. These studies have addressed both distinct and common challenges. Past successes and mistakes can provide valuable lessons for revising the research agenda. In this article, six researchers from four academic and research institutes identify graph analytics' fundamental challenges and present both insightful lessons learned from their experience and good practices in graph analytics research. The goal is to critically assess those lessons and shed light on how they can stimulate research and draw attention to grand challenges for graph analytics. The article also establishes principles that could lead to measurable standards and criteria for research.
BibTeX:
@article{Wong2011Graph,
  author = {Pak Chung Wong and Chaomei Chen and Carsten Gorg and Ben Shneiderman and John Stasko and Jim Thomas},
  title = {Graph Analytics - Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead},
  journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {31},
  number = {5},
  pages = {18--29},
  doi = {10.1109/MCG.2011.72}
}
Wang T, Deshpande A and Shneiderman B (2010), "A Temporal Pattern Search Algorithm for Personal History Event Visualization", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. May 2012, Vol 24(5), pp. 799-812.
Abstract: We present Temporal Pattern Search (TPS), a novel algorithm for searching for temporal patterns of events in historical personal histories. The traditional method of searching for such patterns uses an automaton-based approach over a single array of events, sorted by time stamps. Instead, TPS operates on a set of arrays, where each array contains all events of the same type, sorted by time stamps. TPS searches for a particular item in the pattern using a binary search over the appropriate arrays. Although binary search is considerably more expensive per item, it allows TPS to skip many unnecessary events. We show that TPS's running time is bounded by O(m^2nlg(n)), where m is the number of items in a search pattern, and n is the number of events in a history. Although the asymptotic running time of TPS is inferior to that of a non-deterministic finite automaton approach, TPS performs better than NFA under our experimental conditions. We also show TPS is very competitive to Shift-And, a bit-parallelism approach, with real data. Since the experimental conditions we describe here subsume the conditions under which analysts would typically use TPS (i.e. within an interactive visualization program), we argue that TPS is an appropriate design choice for us.
BibTeX:
@article{Wang2010Temporal,
  author = {Wang, T. and Deshpande, A. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {A Temporal Pattern Search Algorithm for Personal History Event Visualization},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {24},
  number = {5},
  pages = {799--812},
  doi = {10.1109/TKDE.2010.257}
}
Aris A, Shneiderman B, Qazvinian V and Radev D (2009), "Visual overviews for discovering key papers and influences across research fronts", Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Nov. 2009, Vol 60, pp. 2219-2228.
Abstract: Gaining a rapid overview of an emerging scientific topic, sometimes called research fronts, is an increasingly common task due to the growing amount of interdisciplinary collaboration. Visual overviews that show temporal patterns of paper publication and citation links among papers can help researchers and analysts to see the rate of growth of topics, identify key papers, and understand influences across subdisciplines. This article applies a novel network-visualization tool based on meaningful layouts of nodes to present research fronts and show citation links that indicate influences across research fronts. To demonstrate the value of two-dimensional layouts with multiple regions and user control of link visibility, we conducted a design-oriented, preliminary case study with 6 domain experts over a 4-month period. The main benefits were being able (a) to easily identify key papers and see the increasing number of papers within a research front, and (b) to quickly see the strength and direction of influence across related research fronts. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Aris2009Visual,
  author = {Aris, Aleks and Shneiderman, Ben and Qazvinian, Vahed and Radev, Dragomir},
  title = {Visual overviews for discovering key papers and influences across research fronts},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {2219--2228},
  doi = {10.1002/asi.v60:11}
}
Preece, J and Shneiderman B (2009), "The Reader-to-Leader Framework: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation", AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction., Mar., 2009. Vol 1(1), pp. 13-32.
Abstract: Billions of people participate in online social activities. Most users participate as readers of discussion boards, searchers of blog posts, or viewers of photos. A fraction of users become contributors of user-generated content by writing consumer product reviews, uploading travel photos, or expressing political opinions. Some users move beyond such individual efforts to become collaborators, forming tightly connected groups with lively discussions whose outcome might be a Wikipedia article or a carefully edited YouTube video. A small fraction of users becomes leaders, who participate in governance by setting and upholding policies, repairing vandalized materials, or mentoring novices. We analyze these activities and offer the Reader-to-Leader Framework with the goal of helping researchers, designers, and managers understand what motivates technology-mediated social participation. This will enable them to improve interface design and social support for their companies, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. These improvements could reduce the number of failed projects, while accelerating the application of social media for national priorities such as healthcare, energy sustainability, emergency response, economic development, education, and more.
BibTeX:
@article{Jennifer2009Reader,
  author = {Jennifer, Preece and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The Reader-to-Leader Framework: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation},
  journal = {AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {13--32},
  url = {http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol1/iss1/5/}
}
Dao HT, Bazinet AL, Berthier R and Shneiderman B (2008), "NASDAQ Velocity and Forces: An Interactive Visualization of Activity and Change", J. UCS. Vol. 14(9), pp. 1391-1410.
Abstract: NASDAQ Market Velocity and Market Forces are two relatively new data products that attempt to capture market sentiment, something that was previously only observable if one was on a trading floor. Given the transient and temporal properties of the data, we were challenged to create a visualization that would highlight the ever-changing qualities of Velocity and Forces. To that end, we developed FireStox, a web application that provides unified representation and filtering solutions to help market researchers observe the behavior of these metrics for one or many companies throughout the course of a trading day.
BibTeX:
@article{Dao2008NASDAQ,
  author = {Huyen Tue Dao and Adam L. Bazinet and Robin Berthier and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {NASDAQ Velocity and Forces: An Interactive Visualization of Activity and Change},
  journal = {J. UCS},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14},
  number = {9},
  pages = {1391--1410},
  url = {http://www.jucs.org/jucs_14_9/nasdaq_velocity_and_forces}
}
Friedler SA, Tan YL, Peer NJ and Shneiderman B (2008), "Enabling teachers to explore grade patterns to identify individual needs and promote fairer student assessment", Computers & Education, Dec. 2008. Vol 51(4), pp. 1467-1485.
Abstract: Exploring student test, homework, and other assessment scores is a challenge for most teachers, especially when attempting to identify cross-assessment weaknesses and produce final course grades. During the course, teachers need to identify subject weaknesses in order to help students who are struggling with a particular topic. This identification often needs to happen across multiple assessment data points and should be considered in comparison to the class's progress as a whole. When determining grades, fairness to all is essential, but there are special needs for students who did poorly on one exam or had a steadily increasing grasp of the subject. We present eduViz, a visualization tool designed to help teachers explore and assign grades. Teachers can see the trajectory of student scores, the relationship of a particular student to the class, and use categories they have defined in order to filter their assessment information. Query response is immediate and all logical comparisons are possible. Teachers can easily compare their query to the class or per student average as well as view scores by raw point total or percentage. Additionally, eduViz provides a grade assignment interface which allows teachers to view sorted student scores in a scatterplot. This scatterplot is coupled with a unique partition slider which allows users to move color coordinated bands on the scatterplot to indicate grade ranges. As these grade ranges are set, a histogram is updated to show the number of students assigned to each grade range. These features give teachers new and powerful ways to explore and assign grades so that they can better understand student strengths and weaknesses and make the most of the time they have available. Interviews with 16 expert teachers indicate that eduViz is a success across fields, provides teachers with a useful tool to understand and help their classes, and encourages reflective practice.
BibTeX:
@article{Friedler2008Enabling,
  author = {Friedler, Sorelle A. and Tan, Yee Lin and Peer, Nir J. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Enabling teachers to explore grade patterns to identify individual needs and promote fairer student assessment},
  journal = {Computers and Education},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science Ltd.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1467--1485},
  doi = {10.1016/j.compedu.2008.01.005}
}
Kang H, Getoor L, Shneiderman B, Bilgic M and Licamele L (2008), "Interactive Entity Resolution in Relational Data: A Visual Analytic Tool and Its Evaluation", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics., Sept.-Oct., 2008. Vol. 14(5), pp. 999 -1014.
Abstract: Databases often contain uncertain and imprecise references to real-world entities. Entity resolution, the process of reconciling multiple references to underlying real-world entities, is an important data cleaning process required before accurate visualization or analysis of the data is possible. In many cases, in addition to noisy data describing entities, there is data describing the relationships among the entities. This relational data is important during the entity resolution process; it is useful both for the algorithms which determine likely database references to be resolved and for visual analytic tools which support the entity resolution process. In this paper, we introduce a novel user interface, D-Dupe, for interactive entity resolution in relational data. D-Dupe effectively combines relational entity resolution algorithms with a novel network visualization that enables users to make use of an entity's relational context for making resolution decisions. Since resolution decisions often are interdependent, D-Dupe facilitates understanding this complex process through animations which highlight combined inferences and a history mechanism which allows users to inspect chains of resolution decisions. An empirical study with 12 users confirmed the benefits of the relational context visualization on the performance of entity resolution tasks in relational data in terms of time as well as users' confidence and satisfaction.
BibTeX:
@article{Kang2008Interactive,
  author = {Hyunmo Kang and Getoor, L. and Shneiderman, B. and Bilgic, M. and Licamele, L.},
  title = {Interactive Entity Resolution in Relational Data: A Visual Analytic Tool and Its Evaluation},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14},
  number = {5},
  pages = {999--1014},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2008.55}
}
Kules B and Shneiderman B (2008), "Users can change their web search tactics: Design guidelines for categorized overviews", Information Processing and Management. Mar., 2008. Vol 44(2), pp. 463-484.
Abstract: Categorized overviews of web search results are a promising way to support user exploration, understanding, and discovery. These search interfaces combine a metadata-based overview with the list of search results to enable a rich form of interaction. A study of 24 sophisticated users carrying out complex tasks suggests how searchers may adapt their search tactics when using categorized overviews. This mixed methods study evaluated categorized overviews of web search results organized into thematic, geographic, and government categories. Participants conducted four exploratory searches during a 2-hour session to generate ideas for newspaper articles about specified topics such as ''human smuggling.'' Results showed that subjects explored deeper while feeling more organized, and that the categorized overview helped subjects better assess their results, although no significant differences were detected in the quality of the article ideas. A qualitative analysis of searcher comments identified seven tactics that participants reported adopting when using categorized overviews. This paper concludes by proposing a set of guidelines for the design of exploratory search interfaces. An understanding of the impact of categorized overviews on search tactics will be useful to web search researchers, search interface designers, information architects and web developers.
BibTeX:
@article{Kules2008Users,
  author = {Kules, Bill and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Users can change their web search tactics: Design guidelines for categorized overviews},
  journal = {Information Processing and Management},
  publisher = {Pergamon Press, Inc.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {44},
  number = {2},
  pages = {463--484},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ipm.2007.07.014}
}
Zhao H, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Lazar J (2008), "Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data", ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. May., 2008. Vol 15, pp. 4:1-4:28.
Abstract: We describe the development and evaluation of a tool, iSonic, to assist users with visual impairment in exploring georeferenced data using coordinated maps and tables, augmented with nontextual sounds and speech output. Our in-depth case studies with 7 blind users during 42 hours of data collection, showed that iSonic enabled them to find facts and discover trends in georeferenced data, even in unfamiliar geographical contexts, without special devices. Our design was guided by an Action-by-Design-Component (ADC) framework, which was also applied to scatterplots to demonstrate its generalizability. Video and download is available at www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/iSonic/.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhao2008Data,
  author = {Zhao, Haixia and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Lazar, Jonathan},
  title = {Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {4:1--4:28},
  doi = {10.1145/1352782.1352786}
}
Aris A and Shneiderman B (2007), "Designing semantic substrates for visual network exploration", Information Visualization Journal, Dec., 2007, Vol 6(4), pp. 1-20.
Abstract: A semantic substrate is a spatial template tor a network, where nodes are grouped into regions and laid out within each region according to one or more node attributes. This paper shows how users can be given control in designing their own substrates and how this ability leads to a different approach to network data exploration. Users can create a semantic substrate, enter their data, get feedback from domain experts, edit the semantic substrate, and iteratively continue this procedure until the domain experts are satisfied with the insights they have gained. We illustrate this process in two case studies with domain experts working with legal precedents and food webs. Guidelines for designing substrates are provided, including how to locate, size, and align regions in a substrate, which attributes to choose for grouping nodes into regions, how to select placement methods and which attributes to set as parameters of the selected placement method. Throughout the paper, examples are illustrated with NVSS 2.0, the network visualization tool developed to explore the semantic substrate idea.
BibTeX:
@article{Aris2007Designing,
  author = {Aris, Aleks and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing semantic substrates for visual network exploration},
  journal = {Information Visualization Journal},
  publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {6},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1--20},
  doi = {10.1057/palgrave.ivs.9500162}
}
Hesse B. and Shneiderman B. (2007), "Ehealth research from the user's perspective.", American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2007, Vol 32(5S), pp. S97-S103.
Abstract: The application of information technology (IT) to issues of healthcare delivery has had a long and tortuous history in the United States. Within the field of eHealth, vanguard applications of advanced computing techniques, such as applications in artificial intelligence or expert systems, have languished in spite of a track record of scholarly publication and decisional accuracy. The problem is one of purpose, of asking the right questions for the science to solve. Historically, many computer science pioneers have been tempted to ask "what can the computer do?" New advances in eHealth are prompting developers to ask "what can people do?" How can eHealth take part in national goals for healthcare reform to empower relationships between healthcare professionals and patients, healthcare teams and families, and hospitals and communities to improve health equitably throughout the population? To do this, eHealth researchers must combine best evidence from the user sciences (human factors engineering, human-computer interaction, psychology, and usability) with best evidence in medicine to create transformational improvements in the quality of care that medicine offers. These improvements should follow recommendations from the Institute of Medicine to create a healthcare system that is (1) safe, (2) effective (evidence based), (3) patient centered, and (4) timely. Relying on the eHealth researcher's intuitive grasp of systems issues, improvements should be made with considerations of users and beneficiaries at the individual (patient-physician), group (family-staff), community, and broad environmental levels.
BibTeX:
@article{Hesse2007eHealth,
  author = {Hesse, Bradford W and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {eHealth research from the user?s perspective.},
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {32},
  number = {5S},
  pages = {S97--S103},
  url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1939873&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract}
}
Jaeger PT, Shneiderman B, Fleischmann KR, Preece J, Qu Y and Fei Wu P (2007), "Community response grids: E-government, social networks, and effective emergency management", Telecommunications Policy, Nov., 2007, Vol 31(10-11), pp. 592-604.
Abstract: This paper explores the concept of developing community response grids (CRGs) for community emergency response and the policy implications of such a system. CRGs make use of the Internet and mobile communication devices, allowing residents and responders to share information, communicate, and coordinate activities in response to a major disaster. This paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies and the Web, including e-government, to develop response systems that would aid communities before, during, and after a major disaster, providing channels for contacting residents and responders, uploading information, distributing information, coordinating the responses of social networks, and facilitating resident-to-resident assistance. Drawing upon research from computer science, information studies, public policy, emergency management, and several other disciplines, the paper elaborates on the concept of and need for CRGs, examines related current efforts that can inform the development of CRGs, discusses how research about community networks can be used to instill trust and social capital in CRGs, and examines the issues of public policy, telecommunications, and e-government related to such a system.
BibTeX:
@article{Jaeger2007Community,
  author = {Jaeger, Paul T. and Shneiderman, Ben and Fleischmann, Kenneth R. and Preece, Jennifer and Qu, Yan and Fei Wu, Philip},
  title = {Community response grids: E-government, social networks, and effective emergency management},
  journal = {Telecommun. Policy},
  publisher = {Pergamon Press, Inc.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {31},
  number= {10-11},
  pages = {592--604},
  doi = {10.1016/j.telpol.2007.07.008}
}
Jaeger PT, Fleischmann KR, Preece J, Shneiderman B, Wu PF and Qu Y (2007), "Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.", Biosecurity and Bioterrorism Biodefense Strategy Practice and Science. Vol 5(4), pp. 335-345.
Abstract: Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.
BibTeX:
@article{Jaeger2007Communitya,
  author = {Jaeger, Paul T and Fleischmann, Kenneth R and Preece, Jennifer and Shneiderman, Ben and Wu, Philip Fei and Qu, Yan},
  title = {Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.},
  journal = {Biosecurity and Bioterrorism Biodefense Strategy Practice and Science},
  publisher = {Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2 Madison Avenue Larchmont, NY 10538 USA},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {5},
  number = {4},
  pages = {335--345},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18081493}
}
Schatz MC, Phillippy AM, Shneiderman B and Salzberg SL (2007), "Interactive visual analytics tool for genome assemblies", Genome Biology. Vol 8(3), pp. R34.
Abstract: Genome sequencing remains an inexact science, and genome sequences can contain significant errors if they are not carefully examined. Hawkeye is our new visual analytics tool for genome assemblies, designed to aid in identifying and correcting assembly errors. Users can analyze all levels of an assembly along with summary statistics and assembly metrics, and are guided by a ranking component towards likely mis-assemblies. Hawkeye is freely available and released as part of the open source AMOS project http://amos.sourceforge.net/hawkeye.
BibTeX:
@article{Schatz2007Hawkeye:,
  author = {Schatz, Michael C and Phillippy, Adam M and Shneiderman, Ben and Salzberg, Steven L},
  title = {Hawkeye: an interactive visual analytics tool for genome assemblies},
  journal = {Genome Biology},
  publisher = {BioMed Central},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  pages = {R34},
  doi = {10.1186/gb-2007-8-3-r34},
  url = {http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/3/R34}
}
Shneiderman B (2007), "Creativity support tools: accelerating discovery and innovation", Communications of the ACM, Dec., 2007. Vol 50, pp. 20-32.
Abstract: How can designers of programming interfaces, interactive tools, and rich social environments enable more people to be more creative more often?
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2007Creativity,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Creativity support tools: accelerating discovery and innovation},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {20--32},
  doi = {10.1145/1323688.1323689}
}
Tanin, E., Shneiderman, B., and H. Xie (2007), "Browsing large online data tables using generalized query previews", Information Systems, May 2007, Vol 32(3), pp. 402-423.
Abstract: Companies, government agencies, and other organizations are making their data available to the world over the Internet. They often use large online relational tables for this purpose. Users query such tables with front-ends that typically use menus or form fillin interfaces, but these interfaces rarely give users information about the contents and distribution of the data. Such a situation leads users to waste time and network/server resources posing queries that have zero- or mega-hit results. Generalized query previews enable efficient browsing of large online data tables by supplying data distribution information to users. The data distribution information provides continuous feedback about the size of the result set as the query is being formed. Our paper presents a new user interface architecture and discusses three controlled experiments (with 12, 16, and 48 participants). Our prototype systems provide flexible user interfaces for research and testing of the ideas. The user studies show that for exploratory querying tasks, generalized query previews can speed user performance for certain user domains and can reduce network/server load.
BibTeX:
@article{Tanin2007Browsing,
  author = {Tanin, E., Shneiderman, B., and H. Xie},
  title = {Browsing large online data tables using generalized query previews},
  journal = {Information Systems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {32},
  number ={3}
  pages = {402--423},
  doi = {10.1016/j.is.2005.12.006}
}
Bakay M, Wang Z, Melcon G, Schiltz L, Xuan J, Zhao P, Sartorelli V, Seo J, Pegoraro E, Angelini C and et al. (2006), "Nuclear envelope dystrophies show a transcriptional fingerprint suggesting disruption of Rb-MyoD pathways in muscle regeneration.", Brain: A journal of neurology. Vol. 129(Pt 4), pp. 996-1013.
Abstract: Mutations of lamin A/C (LMNA) cause a wide range of human disorders, including progeria, lipodystrophy, neuropathies and autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). EDMD is also caused by X-linked recessive loss-of-function mutations of emerin, another component of the inner nuclear lamina that directly interacts with LMNA. One model for disease pathogenesis of LMNA and emerin mutations is cell-specific perturbations of the mRNA transcriptome in terminally differentiated cells. To test this model, we studied 125 human muscle biopsies from 13 diagnostic groups (125 U133A, 125 U133B microarrays), including EDMD patients with LMNA and emerin mutations. A Visual and Statistical Data Analyzer (VISDA) algorithm was used to statistically model cluster hierarchy, resulting in a tree of phenotypic classifications. Validations of the diagnostic tree included permutations of U133A and U133B arrays, and use of two probe set algorithms (MAS5.0 and MBEI). This showed that the two nuclear envelope defects (EDMD LMNA, EDMD emerin) were highly related disorders and were also related to fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD has recently been hypothesized to involve abnormal interactions of chromatin with the nuclear envelope. To identify disease-specific transcripts for EDMD, we applied a leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation approach using LMNA patient muscle as a test data set, with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validations in both LMNA and emerin patient muscle. A high proportion of top-ranked and validated transcripts were components of the same transcriptional regulatory pathway involving Rb1 and MyoD during muscle regeneration (CRI-1, CREBBP, Nap1L1, ECREBBP/p300), where each was specifically upregulated in EDMD. Using a muscle regeneration time series (27 time points) we develop a transcriptional model for downstream consequences of LMNA and emerin mutations. We propose that key interactions between the nuclear envelope and Rb and MyoD fail in EDMD at the point of myoblast exit from the cell cycle, leading to poorly coordinated phosphorylation and acetylation steps. Our data is consistent with mutations of nuclear lamina components leading to destabilization of the transcriptome in differentiated cells.
BibTeX:
@article{Bakay2006Nuclear,
  author = {Bakay, Marina and Wang, Zuyi and Melcon, Gisela and Schiltz, Louis and Xuan, Jianhua and Zhao, Po and Sartorelli, Vittorio and Seo, Jinwook and Pegoraro, Elena and Angelini, Corrado and et al.},
  title = {Nuclear envelope dystrophies show a transcriptional fingerprint suggesting disruption of Rb-MyoD pathways in muscle regeneration.},
  journal = {Brain: A journal of neurology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {129},
  number = {Pt 4},
  pages = {996--1013},
  doi = {10.1093/brain/awl023}
}
Bessière K, Newhagen JE, Robinson JP and Shneiderman B (2006), "A model for computer frustration: the role of instrumental and dispositional factors on incident, session, and post-session frustration and mood", Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 22(6), pp. 941 - 961.
Abstract: Frustration is almost universally accepted as the emotional outcome of a negative computing experience. Despite the wide use of the term, however, it has not been rigorously conceptualized as a factor in the study of the human–computer interface. This project sets out to explicate frustration as a pre-emotional state generated by the user’s appraisal of the interface as an impediment to goal attainment, and looks at how user characteristics, such as self-efficacy, relate to it. This project employed episode report methodology to capture data from 144 computer users’ reports of actual frustrating events as they took place. Diaries taken as users worked at their everyday tasks yield detailed data about the problems they encountered and included information about session length and an estimate of the time lost due to the experiences. Outcomes were measured as either situational or dispositional factors. Situational factors, having to do with specific events, predicted incident frustration. However, disposition variables, especially user self-efficacy, were much stronger, predicting incident and session frustration, and post-session mood. One surprising outcome was the failure of demographic variables as predictors of frustration.
BibTeX:
@article{Bessiere2006model,
  author = {Katie Bessière and John E. Newhagen and John P. Robinson and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {A model for computer frustration: the role of instrumental and dispositional factors on incident, session, and post-session frustration and mood},
  journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {6},
  pages = {941--961},
  doi = {10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.015}
}
Kang H and Shneiderman B (2006), "Exploring personal media: A spatial interface supporting user-defined semantic regions", Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Jan., 2006, Vol 17(3), pp. 254-283.
Abstract: Graphical mechanisms for spatially organizing personal media data could enable users to fruitfully apply their conceptual models. This paper introduces Semantic regions, an innovative way for users to construct display representations of their conceptual models by drawing regions on 2D space and specifying the semantics for each region. Then users can apply personal categorizations to personal media data using the fling-and-flock metaphor. This allows personal media to be dragged to the spatially organized display and automatically grouped according to time, geography, family trees, groups of friends, or other spatially organized display representations of conceptual models. The prototype implementation for semantic regions, MediaFinder, was refined based on two small usability tests for usage and construction of user-defined conceptual models.
BibTeX:
@article{Kang2006Exploring,
  author = {Hyunmo Kang and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Exploring personal media: A spatial interface supporting user-defined semantic regions},
  journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {254--283},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jvlc.2006.01.001}
}
Kustanowitz J and Shneiderman B (2006), "Hierarchical Layouts for Photo Libraries", Multimedia, IEEE., Oct.-Dec., 2006. Vol 13(4), pp. 62-72.
Abstract: We use an annotated digital photo collection to demonstrate a two-level auto-layout technique consisting of a central primary region with secondary regions surrounding it. Because the object sizes within regions can only be changed in discrete units, we refer to them as quantum content. Our real-time algorithms enable a compelling interactive display as users resize the canvas, or move and resize the primary region
BibTeX:
@article{Kustanowitz2006Hierarchical,
  author = {Kustanowitz, J. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Hierarchical Layouts for Photo Libraries},
  journal = {Multimedia, IEEE},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {13},
  number = {4},
  pages = {62--72},
  doi = {10.1109/MMUL.2006.83}
}
Lazar J, Jones A, Hackley M and Shneiderman B (2006), "Severity and impact of computer user frustration: A comparison of student and workplace users", Interacting with Computers, Mar., 2006. Vol 18, pp. 187-207.
Abstract: User frustration with information and computing technology is a pervasive and persistent problem. When computers crash, network congestion causes delays, and poor user interfaces trigger confusion there are dramatic consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. These frustrations, not only cause personal dissatisfaction and loss of self-efficacy, but may disrupt workplaces, slow learning, and reduce participation in local and national communities. Our exploratory study of 107 student computer users and 50 workplace computer users shows high levels of frustration and loss of 1/3-1/2 of time spent. This paper reports on the incident and individual factors that cause of frustration, and how they raise frustration severity. It examines the frustration impacts on the daily interactions of the users. The time lost and time to fix problem, and importance of task, strongly correlate with frustration levels for both student and workplace users. Differences between students and workplace users are discussed in the paper, as are implications for researchers. or researchers.
BibTeX:
@article{Lazar2006Severity,
  author = {Lazar, Jonathan and Jones, Adam and Hackley, Mary and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Severity and impact of computer user frustration: A comparison of student and workplace users},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science Inc.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {187--207},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2005.06.001}
}
Lazar J, Jones A and Shneiderman B (2006), "Workplace user frustration with computers: an exploratory investigation of the causes and severity", Behaviour & Information Technology. Vol. 25(3), pp. 239-251.
Abstract: When hard to use computers cause users to become frustrated, it can affect workplace productivity, user mood, and interactions with other co-workers. Previous research has examined the frustration that graduate students and their families face in using computers. To learn more about the causes and effects of user frustration with computers in the workplace, we collected modified time diaries from 50 workplace users, who spent an average of 5.1 hours on the computer. In this experiment, users reported wasting on average, 42-43% of their time on the computer due to frustrating experiences. The causes of the frustrating experiences, the time lost due to the frustrating experiences, and the effects of the frustrating experiences on the mood of the users are discussed in this paper. Implications for designers, managers, users, information technology staff, and policymakers are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Lazar2006Workplace,
  author = {Lazar, Jonathan and Jones, Adam and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Workplace user frustration with computers: an exploratory investigation of the causes and severity},
  journal = {Behaviour & Information Technology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {25},
  number = {3},
  pages = {239--251},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01449290500196963}
}
Perer A and Shneiderman B (2006), "Balancing Systematic and Flexible Exploration of Social Networks", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics., Sept.-Oct., 2006. Vol. 12(5), pp. 693 -700.
Abstract: Social network analysis (SNA) has emerged as a powerful method for understanding the importance of relationships in networks. However, interactive exploration of networks is currently challenging because: (1) it is difficult to find patterns and comprehend the structure of networks with many nodes and links, and (2) current systems are often a medley of statistical methods and overwhelming visual output which leaves many analysts uncertain about how to explore in an orderly manner. This results in exploration that is largely opportunistic. Our contributions are techniques to help structural analysts understand social networks more effectively. We present SocialAction, a system that uses attribute ranking and coordinated views to help users systematically examine numerous SNA measures. Users can (1) flexibly iterate through visualizations of measures to gain an overview, filter nodes, and find outliers, (2) aggregate networks using link structure, find cohesive subgroups, and focus on communities of interest, and (3) untangle networks by viewing different link types separately, or find patterns across different link types using a matrix overview. For each operation, a stable node layout is maintained in the network visualization so users can make comparisons. SocialAction offers analysts a strategy beyond opportunism, as it provides systematic, yet flexible, techniques for exploring social networks
BibTeX:
@article{Perer2006Balancing,
  author = {Perer, A. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Balancing Systematic and Flexible Exploration of Social Networks},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {5},
  pages = {693 -700},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2006.122}
}
Perer A, Shneiderman B and Oard DW (2006), "Using rhythms of relationships to understand e-mail archives", Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology, Dec., 2006. Vol 57 (14), pp. 1936-1948.
Abstract: Due to e-mail's ubiquitous nature, millions of users are intimate with the technology; however, most users are only familiar with managing their own e-mail, which is an inherently different task from exploring an e-mail archive. Historians and social scientists believe that e-mail archives are important artifacts for understanding the individuals and communities they represent. To understand the conversations evidenced in an archive, context is needed. In this article, we present a new way to gain this necessary context: analyzing the temporal rhythms of social relationships. We provide methods for constructing meaningful rhythms from the e-mail headers by identifying relationships and interpreting their attributes. With these visualization techniques, e-mail archive explorers can uncover insights that may have been otherwise hidden in the archive. We apply our methods to an individual's 15-year e-mail archive, which consists of about 45,000 messages and over 4,000 relationships.
BibTeX:
@article{Perer2006Using,
  author = {Perer, Adam and Shneiderman, Ben and Oard, Douglas W.},
  title = {Using rhythms of relationships to understand e-mail archives},
  journal = {Jurnal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {57},
  number = {14},
  pages = {1936--1948},
  doi = {10.1002/asi.20387}
}
Seo J and Shneiderman B (2006), "Knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data: case studies and a user survey for the rank-by-feature framework", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics., May-Jun., 2006. Vol. 12(3), pp. 311 -322.
Abstract: Knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data is a challenging enterprise, but new visual analytic tools appear to offer users remarkable powers if they are ready to learn new concepts and interfaces. Our three-year effort to develop versions of the hierarchical clustering explorer (HCE) began with building an interactive tool for exploring clustering results. It expanded, based on user needs, to include other potent analytic and visualization tools for multivariate data, especially the rank-by-feature framework. Our own successes using HCE provided some testimonial evidence of its utility, but we felt it necessary to get beyond our subjective impressions. This paper presents an evaluation of the hierarchical clustering explorer (HCE) using three case studies and an e-mail user survey (n=57) to focus on skill acquisition with the novel concepts and interface for the rank-by-feature framework. Knowledgeable and motivated users in diverse fields provided multiple perspectives that refined our understanding of strengths and weaknesses. A user survey confirmed the benefits of HCE, but gave less guidance about improvements. Both evaluations suggested improved training methods
BibTeX:
@article{Seo2006Knowledge,
  author = {Jinwook Seo and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data: case studies and a user survey for the rank-by-feature framework},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {3},
  pages = {311--322},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2006.50}
}
Shmueli G, Jank W, Aris A, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2006), "Exploring auction databases through interactive visualization", Decision Support Systems. Vol. 42(3), pp. 1521-1538.
Abstract: We introduce AuctionExplorer, a suite of tools for exploring databases of online auctions. The suite combines tools for collecting, processing, and interactively exploring auction attributes (e.g., seller rating), and the bid history (price evolution represented as a time series). Part of AuctionExplorer's power comes from its coupling of the two information structures, thereby allowing exploration of relationships between diem. Exploration can be directed by hypothesis testing or exploratory data analysis. We propose a process for visual data analysis and illustrate AuctionExplorer's operations with a dataset of eBay auctions. Insights may improve seller, bidder, auction house, and other vendors' understanding of the market, thereby assisting their decision making process.
BibTeX:
@article{Shmueli2006Exploring,
  author = {Shmueli, Galit and Jank, Wolfgang and Aris, Aleks and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Exploring auction databases through interactive visualization},
  journal = {Decision Support Systems},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1521--1538},
  url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167923606000042}
}
Shneiderman B, Fischer G, Czerwinski M, Resnick M, Myers B, Candy L, Edmonds E, Eisenberg M, Giaccardi E, Hewett T and et al. (2006), "Creativity Support Tools: Report From a U.S. National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 20(2), pp. 61-77.
Abstract: Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, educators, students, and many others. Enhanced interfaces could enable more effective searching of intellectual resources, improved collaboration among teams, and more rapid discovery processes. These advanced interfaces should also provide potent support in hypothesis formation, speedier evaluation of alternatives, improved understanding through visualization, and better dissemination of results. For creative endeavors that require composition of novel artifacts (e.g., computer programs, scientific papers, engineering diagrams, symphonies, artwork), enhanced interfaces could facilitate exploration of alternatives, prevent unproductive choices, and enable easy backtracking. This U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored workshop brought together 25 research leaders and graduate students to share experiences, identify opportunities, and formulate research challenges. Two key outcomes emerged: (a) encouragement to evaluate creativity support tools through multidimensional in-depth longitudinal case studies and (b) formulation of 12 principles for design of creativity support tools.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2006Creativity,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Fischer, Gerhard and Czerwinski, Mary and Resnick, Mitch and Myers, Brad and Candy, Linda and Edmonds, Ernest and Eisenberg, Mike and Giaccardi, Elisa and Hewett, Tom and et al.},
  title = {Creativity Support Tools: Report From a U.S. National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {61--77},
  doi = {10.1207/s15327590ijhc2002_1},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327590ijhc2002_1#.U76capRdVnE}
}
Shneiderman B and Aris A (2006), "Network Visualization by Semantic Substrates", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Sept.-Oct., 2006, Vol 12(5), pp. 733 -740.
Abstract: Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on user-defined semantic substrates, which are non-overlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2006Network,
  author = {Shneiderman, B. and Aris, A.},
  title = {Network Visualization by Semantic Substrates},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {5},
  pages = {733--740},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2006.166}
}
Seo J and Shneiderman B (2005), "A rank-by-feature framework for interactive exploration of multidimensional data", Information Visualization, July, 2005. Vol 4(2), pp. 96-113.
Abstract: Interactive exploration of multidimensional data sets is challenging because: (1) it is difficult to comprehend patterns in more than three dimensions, and (2) current systems often are a patchwork of graphical and statistical methods leaving many researchers uncertain about how to explore their data in an orderly manner. We offer a set of principles and a novel rank-by-feature framework that could enable users to better understand distributions in one (1D) or two dimensions (2D), and then discover relationships, clusters, gaps, outliers, and other features. Users of our framework can view graphical presentations (histograms, boxplots, and scatterplots), and then choose a feature detection criterion to rank 1D or 2D axis-parallel projections. By combining information visualization techniques (overview, coordination, and dynamic query) with summaries and statistical methods users can systematically examine the most important 1D and 2D axis-parallel projections. We summarize our Graphics, Ranking, and Interaction for Discovery (GRID) principles as: (1) study 1D, study 2D, then find features (2) ranking guides insight, statistics confirm. We implemented the rank-by-feature framework in the Hierarchical Clustering Explorer, but the same data exploration principles could enable users to organize their discovery process so as to produce more thorough analyses and extract deeper insights in any multidimensional data application, such as spreadsheets, statistical packages, or information visualization tools.
BibTeX:
@article{Seo2005rank,
  author = {Seo, Jinwook and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A rank-by-feature framework for interactive exploration of multidimensional data},
  journal = {Information Visualization},
  publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {96--113},
  doi = {10.1057/palgrave.ivs.9500091},
  url = {http://ivi.sagepub.com/content/4/2/96}
}
Tanin E, Shneiderman B and Xie H (2005), "Browsing Large Online Data Tables Using Generalized Query Previews".
Abstract: Companies, government agencies, and other organizations are making their data available to the world over the Internet. They often use large online relational tables for this purpose. Users query such tables with front-ends that typically use menus or form fillin interfaces, but these interfaces rarely give users information about the contents and distribution of the data. Such a situation leads users to waste time and network/server resources posing queries that have zero-hit or mega-hit results. Generalized query previews enable efficient browsing of large online data tables by supplying data distribution information to the users. The data distribution information provides continuous feedback about the size of the result set as the query is being formed. Our paper presents a new user interface architecture and discusses various experimental findings. Our prototype systems provide flexible user interfaces for research and testing of the ideas. The user studies show that for exploratory querying tasks, generalized query previews can speed user performance for certain user domains and can reduce network/server load.
BibTeX:
@misc{Tanin2005Browsing,
  author = {Egemen Tanin and Ben Shneiderman and Hairuo Xie},
  title = {Browsing Large Online Data Tables Using Generalized Query Previews},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.91.7216}
}
Zhao H and Shneiderman B (2005), "Colour-coded pixel-based Web mapping for geo-referenced data publishing", International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol 19(4), pp. 413-428.
Abstract: This paper describes an image-based technique that enables highly interactive Web choropleth maps for geo-referenced data publishing and visual exploration. Geographic knowledge is encoded into raster images and delivered to the client, instead of in vector formats. Differing from traditional raster-image-based approaches that are static and allow very little user interaction, it allows varieties of sub-second fine-grained interface controls such as dynamic query, dynamic classification, geographic object data identification, user setting adjusting, as well as turning on/off layers, panning and zooming, with no or minimum server support. Compared to Web GIS approaches that are based on vector geographic data, this technique has the features of short initial download time, near-constant performance scalability for larger numbers of geographic objects, and download-map-segment-only-when-necessary which potentially reduces the overall data transfer over the network. As a result, it accommodates general public users with slow modem network connections and low-end machines, as well as users with fast T-1 connections and fast machines. The client-side (browser) is implemented as light-weight Java applets. YMap, an easy-to-use, user-task-oriented highly interactive mapping tool prototype for visual geo-referenced data exploration is implemented using this technique.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhao2005Image,
  author = {Zhao, Haixia and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Image-based highly interactive Web mapping for geo-referenced data publishing},
  journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {19},
  number = {4},
  pages = {413--428},
  doi = {10.1080/1365881051233125120}
}
Zhao H, Smith B, Norman K, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2005), "Interactive sonification of choropleth maps", Multimedia, IEEE., April-Jun., 2005. Vol. 12(2), pp. 26 - 35.
Abstract: Auditory information is an important channel for the visually impaired. Effective sonification (the use of non-speech audio to convey information) promotes equal working opportunities for people with vision impairments by helping them explore data collections for problem solving and decision making. Interactive sonification systems can make georeferenced data accessible to people with vision impairments. The authors compare methods for using sound to encode georeferenced data patterns and for navigating maps.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhao2005Interactive,
  author = {Haixia Zhao and Smith, B.K. and Norman, K. and Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Interactive sonification of choropleth maps},
  journal = {Multimedia, IEEE},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {26--35},
  doi = {10.1109/MMUL.2005.28}
}
Baehrecke E, Dang N, Babaria K and Shneiderman B (2004), "Visualization and analysis of microarray and gene ontology data with treemaps", BMC Bioinformatics, Vol 5(1), pp. 84.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:The increasing complexity of genomic data presents several challenges for biologists. Limited computer monitor views of data complexity and the dynamic nature of data in the midst of discovery increase the challenge of integrating experimental results with information resources. The use of Gene Ontology enables researchers to summarize results of quantitative analyses in this framework, but the limitations of typical browser presentation restrict data access.RESULTS:Here we describe extensions to the treemap design to visualize and query genome data. Treemaps are a space-filling visualization technique for hierarchical structures that show attributes of leaf nodes by size and color-coding. Treemaps enable users to rapidly compare sizes of nodes and sub-trees, and we use Gene Ontology categories, levels of RNA, and other quantitative attributes of DNA microarray experiments as examples. Our implementation of treemaps, Treemap 4.0, allows user-defined filtering to focus on the data of greatest interest, and these queried files can be exported for secondary analyses. Links to model system web pages from Treemap 4.0 enable users access to details about specific genes without leaving the query platform.CONCLUSIONS:Treemaps allow users to view and query the data from an experiment on a single computer monitor screen. Treemap 4.0 can be used to visualize various genome data, and is particularly useful for revealing patterns and details within complex data sets.
BibTeX:
@article{Baehrecke2004Visualization,
  author = {Baehrecke, Eric and Dang, Niem and Babaria, Ketan and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visualization and analysis of microarray and gene ontology data with treemaps},
  journal = {BMC Bioinformatics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {84},
  doi = {10.1186/1471-2105-5-84}
}
Ceaparu I, Lazar J, Bessiere K, Robinson J and Shneiderman B (2004), "Determining Causes and Severity of End-User Frustration", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 17(3), pp. 333-356.
Abstract: Although computers are beneficial to individuals and society, frequently users encounter frustrating experiences when using computers. This study represents an attempt to measure, in 111 participants, the frequency, the cause, and the level of severity of frustrating experiences. The data show that frustrating experiences happen on a frequent basis. The applications in which the frustrating experiences happened most frequently were Web browsing, e-mail, and word processing. The most-cited causes of frustrating experiences were error messages, dropped network connections, long download times, and hard-to-find features. The time lost due to frustrating experiences ranged from 47% to 53% of time spent on a computer, depending on the location and study method. After extreme cases were discarded, the time lost was still above 38%. These disturbing results should be a basis for future study.
BibTeX:
@article{Ceaparu2004Determining,
  author = {Ceaparu, Irina and Lazar, Jonathan and Bessiere, Katie and Robinson, John and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Determining Causes and Severity of End-User Frustration},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {333--356},
  doi = {10.1207/s15327590ijhc1703_3}
}
Ceaparu I and Shneiderman B (2004), "Finding governmental statistical data on the Web: A study of categorically organized links for the FedStats topics page", Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Vol 55(11), pp. 1008-1015.
Abstract: More than 100 U.S. governmental agencies offer links through FedStats, a centralized Web site that facilitates access to statistical tables, reports, and agencies. This and similar large collections need appropriate interfaces to guide the general public to easily and successfully find information they seek. This paper summarizes the results of 3 empirical studies of alternate organization concepts of the FedStats Topics Web page. Each study had 15 participants. The evolution from 645 alphabetically organized links, to 549 categorically organized links, to 215 categorically organized links tied to portal pages produced a steady rise in successful task completion from 15.6 to 24.4 to 42.2%. User satisfaction also increased. We make recommendations based on these data and our observations of users.
BibTeX:
@article{Ceaparu2004Finding,
  author = {Ceaparu, Irina and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Finding governmental statistical data on the Web: A study of categorically organized links for the FedStats topics page},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {55},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1008--1015},
  doi = {10.1002/asi.20052}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2004), "Dynamic Query Tools for Time Series Data Sets: Timebox Widgets for Interactive Exploration", Information Visualization, Vol 3(1), pp. 1-18.
Abstract: Timeboxes are rectangular widgets that can be used in direct-manipulation graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to specify query constraints on time series data sets. Timeboxes are used to specify simultaneously two sets of constraints: given a set of N time series profiles, a timebox covering time periods x1…x2 (x1 ? x2) and values y1…y2 (y1 ? y2) will retrieve only those n?N that have values y1 ? y2 during all times x1 ? x ? x2. TimeSearcher is an information visualization tool that combines timebox queries with overview displays, query-by-example facilities, and support for queries over multiple time-varying attributes. Query manipulation tools including pattern inversion and ‘leaders & laggards’ graphical bookmarks provide additional support for interactive exploration of data sets. Extensions to the basic timebox model that provide additional expressivity include variable time timeboxes, which can be used to express queries with variability in the time interval, and angular queries, which search for ranges of differentials, rather than absolute values. Analysis of the algorithmic requirements for providing dynamic query performance for timebox queries showed that a sequential search outperformed searches based on geometric indices. Design studies helped identify the strengths and weaknesses of the query tools. Extended case studies involving the analysis of two different types of data from molecular biology experiments provided valuable feedback and validated the utility of both the timebox model and the TimeSearcher tool. Timesearcher is available at http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/timesearcher
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2004Dynamic,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Dynamic Query Tools for Time Series Data Sets: Timebox Widgets for Interactive Exploration},
  journal = {Information Visualization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--18},
  doi = {10.1057/palgrave.ivs.9500061}
}
Kules B, Kang H, Plaisant C, Rose A and Shneiderman B (2004), "Immediate usability: a case study of public access design for a community photo library", Interacting with Computers, Vol 16(6), pp. 1171 - 1193.
Abstract: This paper describes a novel instantiation of a digital photo library in a public access system. It demonstrates how designers can utilize characteristics of a target user community (social constraints, trust, and a lack of anonymity) to provide capabilities, such as unrestricted annotation and uploading of photos, which would be impractical in other types of public access systems. It also presents a compact set of design principles and guidelines for ensuring the immediate usability of public access information systems. These principles and guidelines were derived from our experience developing PhotoFinder Kiosk, a community photo library. Attendees of a major HCI conference (CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems) successfully used the tool to browse and annotate collections of photographs spanning 20 years of HCI-related conferences, producing a richly annotated photo history of the field of human–computer interaction. Observations and usage log data were used to evaluate the tool and develop the guidelines. They provide specific guidance for practitioners, as well as a useful framework for additional research in public access interfaces.
BibTeX:
@article{Kules2004Immediate,
  author = {Bill Kules and Hyunmo Kang and Catherine Plaisant and Anne Rose and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Immediate usability: a case study of public access design for a community photo library},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {16},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1171--1193},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2004.07.005}
}
Seo J, Bakay M, Chen Y-W, Hilmer S, Shneiderman B and Hoffman EP (2004), "Interactively optimizing signal-to-noise ratios in expression profiling: project-specific algorithm selection and detection p-value weighting in Affymetrix microarrays", Bioinformatics, Vol 20(16), pp. 2534-2544.
Abstract: MOTIVATION: The most commonly utilized microarrays for mRNA profiling (Affymetrix) include ‘probe sets’ of a series of perfect match and mismatch probes (typically 22 oligonucleotides per probe set). There are an increasing number of reported ‘probe set algorithms’ that differ in their interpretation of a probe set to derive a single normalized ‘signal’ representative of expression of each mRNA. These algorithms are known to differ in accuracy and sensitivity, and optimization has been done using a small set of standardized control microarray data. We hypothesized that different mRNA profiling projects have varying sources and degrees of confounding noise, and that these should alter the choice of a specific probe set algorithm. Also, we hypothesized that use of the Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 probe set detection p-value as a weighting function would improve the performance of all probe set algorithms.

RESULTS: We built an interactive visual analysis software tool (HCE2W) to test and define parameters in Affymetrix analyses that optimize the ratio of signal (desired biological variable) versus noise (confounding uncontrolled variables). Five probe set algorithms were studied with and without statistical weighting of probe sets using the MAS 5.0 probe set detection p-values. The signal-to-noise ratio optimization method was tested in two large novel microarray datasets with different levels of confounding noise, a 105 sample U133A human muscle biopsy dataset (11 groups: mutation-defined, extensive noise), and a 40 sample U74A inbred mouse lung dataset (8 groups: little noise). Performance was measured by the ability of the specific probe set algorithm, with and without detection p-value weighting, to cluster samples into the appropriate biological groups (unsupervised agglomerative clustering with F-measure values). Of the total random sampling analyses, 50% showed a highly statistically significant difference between probe set algorithms by ANOVA [F(4,10) > 14, p < 0.0001], with weighting by MAS 5.0 detection p-value showing significance in the mouse data by ANOVA [F(1,10) > 9, p < 0.013] and paired t-test [t(9) = ?3.675, p = 0.005]. Probe set detection p-value weighting had the greatest positive effect on performance of dChip difference model, ProbeProfiler and RMA algorithms. Importantly, probe set algorithms did indeed perform differently depending on the specific project, most probably due to the degree of confounding noise. Our data indicate that significantly improved data analysis of mRNA profile projects can be achieved by optimizing the choice of probe set algorithm with the noise levels intrinsic to a project, with dChip difference model with MAS 5.0 detection p-value continuous weighting showing the best overall performance in both projects. Furthermore, both existing and newly developed probe set algorithms should incorporate a detection p-value weighting to improve performance.

BibTeX:
@article{Seo2004Interactively,
  author = {Seo, Jinwook and Bakay, Marina and Chen, Yi-Wen and Hilmer, Sara and Shneiderman, Ben and Hoffman, Eric P},
  title = {Interactively optimizing signal-to-noise ratios in expression profiling: project-specific algorithm selection and detection p-value weighting in Affymetrix microarrays},
  journal = {Bioinformatics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {16},
  pages = {2534-2544},
  doi = {10.1093/bioinformatics/bth280}
}
Golub E and Shneiderman B (2003), "Dynamic query visualisations on World Wide Web clients: A DHTML solution for maps and scattergrams", International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology, Aug., 2003, Vol 1(1), pp. 63-78.
Abstract: Dynamic queries are gaining popularity as a method for interactive information visualisation. Many implementations have been made on personal computers, and there is increasing interest in Web-based designs. While Java and Flash strategies have been developed, we believe that a Dynamic HTML implementation could help promote more widespread use. We implemented double-box range sliders with choropleth maps and scattergrams, which are two popular visualisations, using HTML layers and tables. This paper describes our methods for slider control, visual presentation, and displaying/updating results for these visualisations. Visual design issues innovations and performance enhancements were necessary to create viable designs.
BibTeX:
@article{Golub2003Dynamic,
  author = {Golub, Evan and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Dynamic query visualisations on World Wide Web clients: A DHTML solution for maps and scattergrams},
  journal = {International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology},
  publisher = {Inderscience Publishers},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {63--78},
  doi = {10.1504/IJWET.2003.003320}
}
Shneiderman B (2003), "Why not make interfaces better than 3D reality?", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications., Nov.-Dec., 2003, Vol 23(6), pp. 12-15.
Abstract: Many constrained interfaces are designed to be simpler than the real world by restricting movement, limiting interface actions, and keeping interface objects in a plane. However, the strong utility of pure 3D interfaces for medical, architectural, product design, and scientific visualization means that interface design for pure 3D remains an important challenge. An intriguing possibility is that enhanced 3D interfaces might offer simpler navigation, more compelling functionality, safer movements, and less occlusion, than 3D reality, especially for information exploration and visualization tasks. Such features can enable superhuman capabilities such as faster-than-light teleportation, flying through objects, and X-ray vision. Enhanced 3D interfaces might have supernatural tools such as magic wands for instantly shrinking, enlarging, duplicating, or sending objects and enchanted environments that provide error prevention, history keeping, and programming-by-demonstration. Playful game designers and creative application developers have already pushed the technology further than those who seek merely to mimic reality. Advanced designs are marked by their support of rapid situation awareness through effective overviews, reduced numbers of actions to accomplish tasks; and prompt, meaningful feedback for user actions. This article reviews these clever enhanced 3D-design features and encourages approaches that facilitate user tasks rather than mimic reality.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2003Why,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Why not make interfaces better than 3D reality?},
  journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {23},
  number = {6},
  pages = {12--15},
  doi = {10.1109/MCG.2003.1242376}
}
Zhao P, Seo J, Wang Z, Wang Y, Shneiderman B and Hoffman EP (2003), "In vivo filtering of in vitro expression data reveals MyoD targets", Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol 326(10–11), pp. 1049-1065.
Abstract: A published set of downstream targets of MyoD defined in a well-controlled in vitro experiment was filtered for relevance to muscle regeneration using a 27-time-point in vivo murine regeneration series. Using interactive hierarchical and Bayes soft clustering, only a minority of the targets defined in vitro can be confirmed in vivo (~50% of induced transcripts, and none of repressed transcripts). This approach provided strong support that 18 targets including of MyoD are biologically relevant during myoblast differentiation. To cite this article: P. Zhao et al., C. R. Biologies 326 (2003).
BibTeX:
@article{Zhao2003In,
  author = {Po Zhao and Jinwook Seo and Zuyi Wang and Yue Wang and Ben Shneiderman and Eric P. Hoffman},
  title = {In vivo filtering of in vitro expression data reveals MyoD targets},
  journal = {Comptes Rendus Biologies},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {326},
  number = {10–11},
  pages = {1049--1065},
  doi = {10.1016/j.crvi.2003.09.035}
}
Bederson, B., Shneiderman, B., and Wattenberg, M. (2002), "Ordered and quantum treemaps: Making effective use of 2D space to display hierarchies", ACM Transactions on Graphics, Oct., 2002, Vol 21(4), pp. 833-854.
Abstract: Treemaps, a space-filling method for visualizing large hierarchical data sets, are receiving increasing attention. Several algorithms have been previously proposed to create more useful displays by controlling the aspect ratios of the rectangles that make up a treemap. While these algorithms do improve visibility of small items in a single layout, they introduce instability over time in the display of dynamically changing data, fail to preserve order of the underlying data, and create layouts that are difficult to visually search. In addition, continuous treemap algorithms are not suitable for displaying fixed-sized objects within them, such as images.This paper introduces a new "strip" treemap algorithm which addresses these shortcomings, and analyzes other "pivot" algorithms we recently developed showing the trade-offs between them. These ordered treemap algorithms ensure that items near each other in the given order will be near each other in the treemap layout. Using experimental evidence from Monte Carlo trials and from actual stock market data, we show that, compared to other layout algorithms, ordered treemaps are more stable, while maintaining relatively favorable aspect ratios of the constituent rectangles. A user study with 20 participants clarifies the human performance benefits of the new algorithms. Finally, we present quantum treemap algorithms, which modify the layout of the continuous treemap algorithms to generate rectangles that are integral multiples of an input object size. The quantum treemap algorithm has been applied to PhotoMesa, an application that supports browsing of large numbers of images.
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson2002Ordered,
  author = {Bederson, Benjamin B. and Shneiderman, Ben and Wattenberg, Martin},
  title = {Ordered and quantum treemaps: Making effective use of 2D space to display hierarchies},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21},
  number = {4},
  pages = {833--854},
  doi = {10.1145/571647.571649}
}
Seo J and Shneiderman B (2002), "Interactively exploring hierarchical clustering results", Computer, July, 2002. Vol 35(7), pp. 80-86.
Abstract: To date, work in microarrays, sequenced genomes and bioinformatics has focused largely on algorithmic methods for processing and manipulating vast biological data sets. Future improvements will likely provide users with guidance in selecting the most appropriate algorithms and metrics for identifying meaningful clusters-interesting patterns in large data sets, such as groups of genes with similar profiles. Hierarchical clustering has been shown to be effective in microarray data analysis for identifying genes with similar profiles and thus possibly with similar functions. Users also need an efficient visualization tool, however, to facilitate pattern extraction from microarray data sets. The Hierarchical Clustering Explorer integrates four interactive features to provide information visualization techniques that allow users to control the processes and interact with the results. Thus, hybrid approaches that combine powerful algorithms with interactive visualization tools will join the strengths of fast processors with the detailed understanding of domain experts
BibTeX:
@article{Seo2002Interactively,
  author = {Jinwook Seo and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Interactively exploring hierarchical clustering results [gene identification]},
  journal = {Computer},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {35},
  number = {7},
  pages = {80--86},
  doi = {10.1109/MC.2002.1016905}
}
Zaphiris P, Shneiderman B and Norman KL (2002), "Expandable indexes vs. sequential menus for searching hierarchies on the World Wide Web", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 21(3), pp. 201-207.
Abstract: An experiment is reported that compared expandable indexes providing full menu context with sequential menus providing only partial context. Menu depth was varied using hierarchies of two, three and four levels deep in an asymmetric structure of 457 root level items. Menus were presented on the World Wide Web within a browser. Participants searched for specific targets. Results suggest that reducing the depth of hierarchies improves performance in terms of speed and search efficiency. Surprisingly, expandable indexes resulted in poorer performance with deeper hierarchies than did sequential menus.
BibTeX:
@article{Zaphiris2002Expandable,
  author = {Zaphiris, Panayiotis and Shneiderman, Ben and Norman, Kent L.},
  title = {Expandable indexes vs. sequential menus for searching hierarchies on the World Wide Web},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {201--207},
  doi = {10.1080/0144929021000009045}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2001), "Using interactive visualizations of WWW log data to characterize access patterns and inform site design", Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol 52(4), pp. 331-343.
Abstract: HTTP server log files provide Web site operators with substantial detail regarding the visitors to their sites. Interest in interpreting this data has spawned an active market for software packages that summarize and analyze this data, providing histograms, pie graphs, and other charts summarizing usage patterns. Although useful, these summaries obscure useful information and restrict users to passive interpretation of static displays. Interactive visualizations can be used to provide users with greater abilities to interpret and explore Web log data. By combining two-dimensional displays of thousands of individual access requests, color, and size coding for additional attributes, and facilities for zooming and filtering, these visualizations provide capabilities for examining data that exceed those of traditional Web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive visualizations that can be used to explore server data across various dimensions. Possible uses of these visualizations are discussed, and difficulties of data collection, presentation, and interpretation are explored.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2001Using,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Using interactive visualizations of WWW log data to characterize access patterns and inform site design},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {52},
  number = {4},
  pages = {331--343},
  doi = {10.1002/1532-2890(2000)9999:9999<::AID-ASI1066>3.0.CO;2-Y}
}
Shneiderman B (2001), "Inventing Discovery Tools: Combining Information Visualization with Data Mining", In Algorithmic Learning Theory, Vol 2225(2001), pp. 58.
Abstract: The growing use of information visualization tools and data miningalg orithms stems from two separate lines of research. Information visualization researchers believe in the importance of giving users an overview and insight into the data distributions, while data mining researchers believe that statistical algorithms and machine learning can be relied on to find the interesting patterns. This paper discusses two issues that influence design of discovery tools: statistical algorithms vs. visual data presentation, and hypothesis testing vs. exploratory data analysis. I claim that a combined approach could lead to novel discovery tools that preserve user control, enable more effective exploration, and promote responsibility.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Shneiderman2001Inventing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Abe, Naoki and Khardon, Roni and Zeugmann, Thomas},
  title = {Inventing Discovery Tools: Combining Information Visualization with Data Mining},
  booktitle = {Algorithmic Learning Theory},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2225},
  number = {2001},
  pages = {58},
  note = {10.1007/3-540-45583-3_6},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45583-3_6}
}
Shneiderman B and Hochheiser H (2001), "Universal usability as a stimulus to advanced interface design", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 20(5), pp. 367-376.
Abstract: The desire to make computing available to broader populations has historically been a motivation for research and innovation that led to new breakthroughs in usability. Menus, graphical user interfaces and the World Wide Web are examples of innovative technological solutions that have arisen out of the challenge of bringing larger and more diverse groups of users into the world of computing. Universal usability is the latest such challenge: In order to build systems that are universally usable, designers must account for technology variety, user diversity and gaps in user knowledge. These issues are particularly challenging and important in the context of increasing the usability of the World Wide Web. To raise awareness, web designers are urged to provide universal usability statements that offer users information about the usability of their sites. These statements can inform users and thereby reduce frustration and confusion. Further steps toward universal usability might be achieved through research aimed at developing tools that would encourage or promote usability. The paper closes with five proposals for future research.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2001Universal,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Hochheiser, Harry},
  title = {Universal usability as a stimulus to advanced interface design},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {20},
  number = {5},
  pages = {367--376},
  doi = {10.1080/01449290110083602}
}
Greene S, Marchionini G, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2000), "Previews and overviews in digital libraries: Designing surrogates to support visual information seeking", Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol 51(4), pp. 380-393.
Abstract: To aid designers of digital library interfaces, we present a framework for the design of information representations in terms of previews and overviews. Previews and overviews are graphic or textual representations of information abstracted from primary information objects. Previews act as surrogates for one or a few objects and overviews represent collections of objects. A design framework is elaborated in terms of the following three dimensions: (1) what information objects are available to users, (2) how information objects are related and displayed, and (3) how users can manipulate information objects. When utilized properly, previews and overviews allow users to rapidly discriminate objects of interest from those not of interest, and to more fully understand the scope and nature of digital libraries. This article presents a definition of previews and overviews in context, provides design guidelines, and describes four example applications.
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2000Previews,
  author = {Greene, Stephan and Marchionini, Gary and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Previews and overviews in digital libraries: Designing surrogates to support visual information seeking},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {380--393},
  doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(2000)51:4<380::AID-ASI7>3.0.CO;2-5}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2000), "Performance Benefits of Simultaneous Over Sequential Menus as Task Complexity Increases", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 12(2), pp. 173-192.
Abstract: To date, experimental comparisons of menu layouts have concentrated on variants of hierarchical structures of sequentially presented menus. Simultaneous menus-layouts that present multiple active menus on a screen at the same time-are an alternative arrangement that may be useful in many Web design situations. This article describes an experiment involving a between-subject comparison of simultaneous menus and their traditional sequential counterparts. A total of 20 experienced Web users used either simultaneous or sequential menus in a standard Web browser to answer questions based on U.S. Census data. Our results suggest that appropriate use of simultaneous menus can lead to improved task performance speeds without harming subjective satisfaction measures. For novice users performing simple tasks, the simplicity of sequential menus appears to be helpful, but experienced users performing complex tasks may benefit from simultaneous menus. Design improvements can amplify the benefits of simultaneous menu layouts.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2000Performance,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Performance Benefits of Simultaneous Over Sequential Menus as Task Complexity Increases},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {173--192},
  doi = {10.1207/S15327590IJHC1202_2}
}
North C and Shneiderman B (2000), "Snap-together visualization: can users construct and operate coordinated visualizations?", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol 53(5), pp. 715 - 739.
Abstract: Multiple coordinated visualizations enable users to rapidly explore complex information. However, users often need unforeseen combinations of coordinated visualizations. Snap-together visualization (Snap) enables users to rapidly and dynamically construct coordinated–visualization interfaces, customized for their data, without programming. Users U001load data into desired visualizations, then construct coordinations between them for brushing and linking, overview and detail view, drill down, etc. Snap formalizes a conceptual model of visualization coordination based on the relational data model. Visualization developers can easily Snap-enable their independent visualizations using a simple API.
Empirical evaluation reveals benefits, cognitive issues and usability concerns with coordination concepts and Snap. Two user studies explore coordination construction and operation. Data-savvy users successfully, enthusiastically and rapidly constructed powerful coordinated–visualization interfaces of their own. Operating an overview-and-detail coordination reliably improved user performance by 30–80% over detail-only and uncoordinated interfaces for most tasks.
BibTeX:
@article{North2000Snap,
  author = {Chris North and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Snap-together visualization: can users construct and operate coordinated visualizations?},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Studies},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {53},
  number = {5},
  pages = {715--739},
  doi = {10.1006/ijhc.2000.0418}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Creating creativity: user interfaces for supporting innovation", ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, March, 2000, Vol 7, pp. 114-138. Reprinted in Carroll, J. M. (Editor), Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, ACM Press, New York (2002), 235-258.
Abstract: A challenge for human-computer interaction researchers and user interf ace designers is to construct information technologies that support creativity. This ambitious goal can be attained by building on an adequate understanding of creative processes. This article offers a four-phase framework for creativity that might assist designers in providing effective tools for users: (1)Collect: learn from provious works stored in libraries, the Web, etc.; (2) Relate: consult with peers and mentors at early, middle, and late stages, (3)Create: explore, compose, evaluate possible solutions; and (4) Donate: disseminate the results and contribute to the libraries. Within this integrated framework, this article proposes eight activities that require human-computer interaction research and advanced user interface design. A scenario about an architect illustrates the process of creative work within such an environment.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2000Creating,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Creating creativity: user interfaces for supporting innovation},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {114--138},
  doi = {10.1145/344949.345077}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Universal usability: Pushing human-computer interaction research to empower every citizen", Communications of the ACM, May, 2000, Vol 43(5), pp. 84-91. Reprinted in Bucy, E. P. and Newhagen, J. E. (Editors), Media Access: Social and Psychological Dimensions of New Technology User, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ (2004), 255-266.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2000Universal,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Universal usability},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {43},
  number = {5},
  pages = {84--91},
  doi = {10.1145/332833.332843}
}
Tanin, E., Lotem, A., Haddadin, I., Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C., and Slaughter, L., (2000), "Facilitating data exploration with query previews: a study of user performance and preference.", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 19(6), pp. 393 - 403.
Abstract: Networked and local data exploration systems that use command languages, menus, or form fill-in interfaces rarely give users an indication of the distribution of data. This often leads users to waste time, posing queries that have zero-hit or mega-hit results. Query previews are a novel visual approach for browsing databases. Query previews supply users with data distribution information for selected attributes of the database, and give continuous feedback about the size of the result set as the query is being formed. Subsequent refinements might be necessary to narrow the search. As there is a risk that query previews are an additional step, leading to a more complex and slow search process, a within-subjects empirical study was ran with 12 subjects who used interfaces with and without query previews and with minimized network delays. Even with 12 subjects and minimized network delays statistically significant differences were found, showing that query previews could speed up perform
BibTeX:
@article{Tanin2000Facilitating,
  author = {Tanin, EgemenLotem, AmnonHaddadin, IhabShneiderman, BenPlaisant, CatherineSlaughter, Laura},
  title = {Facilitating data exploration with query previews: a study of user performance and preference.},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {19},
  number = {6},
  pages = {393--403},
  doi = {10.1080/014492900750052651},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/014492900750052651#.U7_19ZRdVnE}
}
Greene S, Tanin E, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B, Olsen L, Major G and Johns S (1999), "The end of zero-hit queries: query previews for NASA's Global Change Master Directory", International Journal on Digital Libraries, Vol 2(2-3), pp. 79-90.
Abstract: The Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) of the University of Maryland and NASA have collaborated over three years to refine and apply user interface research concepts developed at HCIL in order to improve the usability of NASA data services. The research focused on dynamic query user interfaces, visualization, and overview + preview designs. An operational prototype, using query previews, was implemented with NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), a directory service for earth science datasets. Users can see the histogram of the data distribution over several attributes and choose among attribute values. A result bar shows the cardinality of the result set, thereby preventing users from submitting queries that would have zero hits. Our experience confirmed the importance of metadata accuracy and completeness. The query preview interfaces make visible the problems or gaps in the metadata that are undetectable with classic form fill-in interfaces. This could be seen as a problem, but we think that it will have a long-term beneficial effect on the quality of the metadata as data providers will be compelled to produce more complete and accurate metadata. The adaptation of the research prototype to the NASA data required revised data structures and algorithms.
BibTeX:
@article{Greene1999end,
  author = {Greene, Stephan and Tanin, Egemen and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Olsen, Lola and Major, Gene and Johns, Steve},
  title = {The end of zero-hit queries: query previews for NASA's Global Change Master Directory},
  journal = {International Journal on Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2,3},
  pages = {79--90},
  note = {10.1007/s007990050039},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007990050039}
}
Plaisant C, Shneiderman B, Doan K and Bruns T (1999), "Interface and data architecture for query preview in networked information systems", ACM Transactions on Information Systems, July, 1999, Vol 17(3), pp. 320-341.
Abstract: There are numerous problems associated with formulating queries on networked information systems. These include increased data volume and complexity, accompanied by slow network access. This article proposes a new approach to a network query user interfaces that consists of two phases: query preview and query refinement. This new approach is based on the concepts of dynamic queries and query previews, which guides users in rapidly and dynamically eliminating undesired records, reducing the data volume to a manageable size, and refining queries locally before submission over a network. Examples of two applications are given: a Restaurant Finder and a prototype for NASA's Earth Observing Systems Data Information Systems (EOSDIS). Data architecture is discussed, and user feedback is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1999Interface,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Doan, Khoa and Bruns, Tom},
  title = {Interface and data architecture for query preview in networked information systems},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Information Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {320--341},
  doi = {10.1145/314516.314522}
}
Potter R, Shneiderman B and Bederson B (1999), "Pixel Data Access for End-User Programming and Graphical Macros"
Abstract: Pixel Data Access is an interprocess communication technique that enables users of graphical user interfaces to automate certain tasks. By accessing the contents of the display buffer, users can search for pixel representations of interface elements, and then initiate actions such as mouse clicks and keyboard entries. While this technique has limitations it offers users of current systems some unusually powerful features that are especially appealing in the area of end-user programming.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Potter1999Pixel,
  author = {Richard Potter and Ben Shneiderman and Ben Bederson},
  title = {Pixel Data Access for End-User Programming and Graphical Macros},
  year = {1999},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.24.7757}
}
Zhang Z, Basili V and Shneiderman B (1999), "Perspective-based Usability Inspection: An Empirical Validation of Efficacy", Empirical Software Engineering, Vol 4(1), pp. 43-69.
Abstract: Inspection is a fundamental means of achieving software usability. Past research showed that the current usability inspection techniques were rather ineffective. We developed perspective-based usability inspection, which divides the large variety of usability issues along different perspectives and focuses each inspection session on one perspective. We conducted a controlled experiment to study its effectiveness, using a post-test only control group experimental design, with 24 professionals as subjects. The control group used heuristic evaluation, which is the most popular technique for usability inspection. The experimental design and the results are presented, which show that inspectors applying perspective-based inspection not only found more usability problems related to their assigned perspectives, but also found more overall problems. Perspective-based inspection was shown to be more effective for the aggregated results of multiple inspectors, finding about 30% more usability problems for 3 inspectors. A management implication of this study is that assigning inspectors more specific responsibilities leads to higher performance. Internal and external threats to validity are discussed to help better interpret the results and to guide future empirical studies.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhang1999Perspective,
  author = {Zhang, Zhijun and Basili, Victor and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Perspective-based Usability Inspection: An Empirical Validation of Efficacy},
  journal = {Empirical Software Engineering},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {43--69},
  note = {10.1023/A:1009803214692},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009803214692}
}
Shneiderman B (1998), "Relate–Create–Donate: a teaching/learning philosophy for the cyber-generation", Computers and Education, Vol 31(1), pp. 25 - 39.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1998Relate–Create–Donate:,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Relate–Create–Donate: a teaching/learning philosophy for the cyber-generation},
  journal = {Computers and Education},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {25--39},
  doi = {10.1016/S0360-1315(98)00014-1}
}
Kandogan E and Shneiderman B (1998), "Elastic windows: design, implementation, and evaluation of multi-window operations", Software: Practice and Experience, Vol 28(3), pp. 225-248.
Abstract: Most windowing systems follow the independent overlapping windows approach, which emerged as an answer to the needs of early computer users. Due to advances in computers, display technology, and increased information needs, modern users demand more functionality from window management systems. We propose Elastic Windows with improved spatial layout and rapid multi-window operations as an alternative to current window management strategies. In this approach, multi-window operations are achieved by issuing operations on window groups hierarchically organized in a space-filling tiled layout similar to TreeMaps.1 Sophisticated multi-window operations have been developed to handle fast task-switching and to structure the work environment of users to their rapidly changing needs. We claim that these multi-window operations and the tiled spatial layout dynamics decrease the cognitive load on users by decreasing the number of window operations. This paper describes the Elastic Windows interface in detail and then presents a user study conducted to compare the performance of 12 users with Elastic Windows and traditional Independent Overlapping Windows. User performance was measured in terms of task environment setup, switching, and task execution for 2, 6, and 12 window situations. Elastic Windows users had statistically significantly faster performance for all tasks in 6 and 12 window situations. These results suggest promising possibilities for multiple window operations and hierarchical nesting, which can be applied to the next generation of tiled as well as overlapped window managers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Kandogan1998Elastic,
  author = {Kandogan, Eser and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Elastic windows: design, implementation, and evaluation of multi-window operations},
  journal = {Software: Practice and Experience},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {28},
  number = {3},
  pages = {225--248},
  doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-024X(199803)28:3<225::AID-SPE151>3.0.CO;2-D}
}
Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Mushlin R (1998), "An information architecture to support the visualization of personal histories", Information Processing and Management. Vol. 34(5), pp. 581 - 597.
Abstract: This paper proposes an information architecture for personal history data and describes how the data model can be extended to a runtime model for a compact visualization using graphical timelines. Our information architecture was developed for juvenile justice and medical patient records, but is usable in other application domains such as personal resumes, financial histories, or customer support. Our model groups personal history events into aggregates that are contained in facets (e.g., doctor visits, hospitalizations, or lab tests). Crosslinks enable representation of arbitrary relationships across events and aggregates. Data attributes, such as severity, can be mapped by data administrators to visual attributes such as color and line thickness. End-users have powerful controls over the display contents, and they can modify the mapping to fit their tasks.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1998information,
  author = {Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman and Rich Mushlin},
  title = {An information architecture to support the visualization of personal histories},
  journal = {Information Processing and Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {34},
  number = {5},
  pages = {581--597},
  doi = {10.1016/S0306-4573(98)00024-7}
}
Shneiderman B (1998), "Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. Vol. 10(2), pp. 87-106.
Abstract: Handwritten codexes or printed books transformed society by allowing users to preserve and transmit information. Today, leather-bound volumes and illuminated manuscripts are giving way to animated image maps and hot links. Vannevarr Bush's memex has inspired the World Wide Web, which provides users with vast information resources and convenient communications. In looking to the future, we might again transform society by building genexes—generators of excellence. Such inspirational environment would empower personal and collaborative creativity by enabling users to: Collect information from an existing domain of knowledge. Create innovations using advanced tools. Consult with peers or mentors in the field. Disseminate the results widely. This article describes how a framework for an integrated set of software tools might support this 4-phase model of creative in science, medicine, the arts, and beyond. Current initiatives are positive and encouraging, but they do not work in an integrated fashion often miss vital components, and are frequently poorly designed. A well-conceived and clearly stated framework could guide design efforts, coordinate planning, and speed development.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1998Codex,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {10},
  number = {2},
  pages = {87--106},
  doi = {10.1207/s15327590ijhc1002_1}
}
Shneiderman B, Borkowski E, Alavi M and Norman K (1998), "Emergent patterns of teaching/learning in electronic classrooms", Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol 46(4), pp. 23-42.
Abstract: Novel patterns of teaching/learning have emerged from faculty and students who use our three teaching/learning theaters at the University of Maryland, College Park. These fully-equipped electronic classrooms have been used by 74 faculty in 264 semester-long courses since the fall of 1991 with largely enthusiastic reception by both faculty and students. The designers of the teaching/learning theaters sought to provide a technologically rich environment and a support staff so that faculty could concentrate on changing the traditional lecture from its unidirectional information flow to a more collaborative activity. As faculty have evolved their personal styles in using the electronic classrooms, novel patterns of teaching/learning have emerged. In addition to enhanced lectures, we identified three common patterns: (a) active individual learning, (b) small-group collaborative learning, and (c) entire-class collaborative learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1998Emergent,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Borkowski, Ellen and Alavi, Maryam and Norman, Kent},
  title = {Emergent patterns of teaching/learning in electronic classrooms},
  journal = {Educational Technology Research and Development},
  publisher = {Springer Boston},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {46},
  number = {4},
  pages = {23--42},
  doi = {10.1007/BF02299671},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02299671}
}
Shneiderman B, Byrd D and Croft WB (1998), "Sorting out searching: a user-interface framework for text searches", Commun. ACM, April, 1998, Vol 41, pp. 95-98.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1998Sorting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Byrd, Donald and Croft, W. Bruce},
  title = {Sorting out searching: a user-interface framework for text searches},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {95--98},
  doi = {10.1145/273035.273069}
}
Mahajan R and Shneiderman B (1997), "Visual and textual consistency checking tools for graphical user interfaces", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering., Nov., 1997. Vol. 23(11), pp. 722 -735.
Abstract: Designing user interfaces with consistent visual and textual properties is difficult. To demonstrate the harmful effects of inconsistency, we conducted an experiment with 60 subjects. Inconsistent interface terminology slowed user performance by 10 to 25 percent. Unfortunately, contemporary software tools provide only modest support for consistency control. Therefore, we developed SHERLOCK, a family of consistency analysis tools, which evaluates visual and textual properties of user interfaces. It provides graphical analysis tools such as a dialog box summary table that presents a compact overview of visual properties of all dialog boxes. SHERLOCK provides terminology analysis tools including an interface concordance, an interface spellchecker, and terminology baskets to check for inconsistent use of familiar groups of terms. Button analysis tools include a button concordance and a button layout table to detect variant capitalization, distinct typefaces, distinct colors, variant button sizes, and inconsistent button placements. We describe the design, software architecture, and the use of SHERLOCK. We tested SHERLOCK with four commercial prototypes. The outputs, analysis, and feedback from designers of the applications are presented
BibTeX:
@article{Mahajan1997Visual,
  author = {Mahajan, R. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Visual and textual consistency checking tools for graphical user interfaces},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {23},
  number = {11},
  pages = {722--735},
  doi = {10.1109/32.637386}
}
Plaisant C, Rose A, Shneiderman B and Vanniamparampil A (1997), "Low-effort, high-payoff user interface reengineering", Software, IEEE, Jul-Aug, 1997, Vol 14(4), pp. 66-72.
Abstract: Although increasingly sophisticated design methodologies for developing new user interfaces exist, low-effort, high-payoff user interface reengineering represents a new direction-and opportunity. Yet reengineering a working system is complex and risky because of the potential disruption to users and managers, their justifiable fear of change, and the lack of guarantees that such changes will be for the better. Our largely positive experiences with the projects described here lead us to believe that user interface reengineering is a viable and important process. Low effort, high-payoff improvement recommendations can probably be made for most existing systems. Nevertheless, a narrowly focused user interface reengineering plan may be inappropriate when the major problems lie outside the scope of the user interface, such as inadequate functionalities, frequent crashes, and network problems. Attempts at improving less severe problems while ignoring deeper ones may be perceived as insensitive by the users. In such cases it is important to consider either making similar short-term improvements for other parts of the systems or postponing short-term user interface reengineering in favour of a more complete system reengineering. Similarly, the need for interface stability might outweigh the benefits of the short-term improvements if a complete reengineering is planned for the near future. But most likely these proposed diagnostic strategies and opportunities for improvement are only a prelude to the much larger task of business reengineering, which implies extensive user interface reengineering
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1997Low,
  author = {Plaisant, C. and Rose, A. and Shneiderman, B. and Vanniamparampil, A.J.},
  title = {Low-effort, high-payoff user interface reengineering},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {66--72},
  doi = {10.1109/52.595958}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "Designing information-abundant web sites: issues and recommendations", International Journal of Human Computer Studies, July, 1997, Vol 47(1), pp. 5-29.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1997Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing information-abundant web sites: issues and recommendations},
  journal = {International Journal of Human Computer Studies},
  publisher = {Academic Press, Inc.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {47},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--29},
  doi = {10.1006/ijhc.1997.0127}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "The next generation of graphical user interfaces: information visualization and better window management", Displays, Vol 17(3–4), pp. 125-129.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1997next,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {The next generation of graphical user interfaces: information visualization and better window management},
  journal = {Displays},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3,4},
  pages = {125--129},
  doi = {10.1016/S0141-9382(97)00005-X}
}
Asahi T, Turo D and Shneiderman B (1995), "Using treemaps to visualize the Analytic Hierarchy Process", Information Systems Research, Vol 6, pp. 357-375.
Abstract: Treemaps, a visualization method for large hierarchical data spaces, are used to augment the capabilities of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for decision-making. Two direct manipulation tools, presented metaphorically as a “pump” and a “hook,” were developed and applied to the treemap to support AHP sensitivity analysis. Users can change the importance of criteria dynamically on the two-dimensional treemap and immediately see the impact on the outcome of the decision. This fluid process dramatically speeds up exploration and provides a better understanding of the relative impact of the component criteria. A usability study with six subjects using a prototype AHP application showed that treemap representation was acceptable from a visualization and data operation standpoint.
BibTeX:
@article{Asahi1995Using,
  author = {Toshiyuki Asahi and David Turo and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Using treemaps to visualize the Analytic Hierarchy Process},
  journal = {Information Systems Research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {357--375},
  url = {http://isr.journal.informs.org/content/6/4/357.short}
}
Kumar H, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1995), "Browsing Hierarchical Data with Multi-Level Dynamic Queries and Pruning", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol, 46, pp. 103-124. Reprinted in Card, S., Mackinlay, J, and Shneiderman, B. (Editors), Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA (1999), 295-305.
Abstract: Users often must browse hierarchies with thousands of nodes in search of those that best match their information needs. The PDQ Tree-browser (Pruning with Dynamic Queries) visualization tool was specified, designed and developed for this purpose. This tool presents trees in two tightlycoupled views, one a detailed view and the other an overview. Users can use dynamic queries, a method for rapidly filtering data, to filter nodes at each level of the tree. The dynamic query panels are user-customizable. Subtrees of unselected nodes are pruned out, leading to compact views of relevant nodes. Usability testing of the PDQ Tree-browser, done with 8 subjects, helped assess strengths and identify possible improvements. The PDQ Tree-browser was used in Network Management (600 nodes) and UniversityFinder (1100 nodes) applications. A controlled experiment, with 24 subjects, showed that pruning significantly improved performance speed and subjective user satisfaction. Future research directions are suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{Kumar1995Browsing,
  author = {Harsha Kumar and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Browsing Hierarchical Data with Multi-Level Dynamic Queries and Pruning},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Studies},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {103--124},
  doi = {10.1006/ijhc.1996.0085}
}
Plaisant C, Carr D and Shneiderman B (1995), "Image-browser taxonomy and guidelines for designers", Software, IEEE., March, 1995, Vol 12(2), pp. 21 -32.
Abstract: In many applications users must browse large images. Most designers merely use two one-dimensional scroll bars or ad hoc designs for two-dimensional scroll bars. However, the complexity of two-dimensional browsing suggests that more careful analysis, design, and evaluation might lead to significant improvements. Our exploration of existing 2D browsers has led us to identify many features and a wide variety of tasks performed with the browsers. We introduce an informal specification technique to describe 2D browsers and a task taxonomy, suggest design features and guidelines, and assess existing strategies. We focus on the tools to explore a selected image and so do not cover techniques to browse a series of images or to browse large-image databases.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1995Image,
  author = {Plaisant, C. and Carr, D. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Image-browser taxonomy and guidelines for designers},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {21--32},
  doi = {10.1109/52.368260}
}
Preece J and Shneiderman B (1995), "Survival of the fittest: the evolution of multimedia user interfaces", ACM Computing Surveys, Dec., 1995, Vol 27(4), pp. 557-559.
BibTeX:
@article{Preece1995Survival,
  author = {Preece, Jenny and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Survival of the fittest: the evolution of multimedia user interfaces},
  journal = {ACM Comput. Surv.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {27},
  number = {4},
  pages = {557--559},
  doi = {10.1145/234782.234789}
}
Shneiderman B, Alavi M, Norman K and Borkowski EY (1995), "Windows of opportunity in electronic classrooms", Communications of the ACM, Nov., 1995, Vol 38(11), pp. 19-24.
Abstract: Paradigm-shifting landmark buildings are cherished by their occupants and remembered because they reshape our expectations of schools, homes, or offices. Classic examples include Thomas Jefferson's communal design of the “academical village” at the University of Virginia where faculty and students lived close to classrooms, Frank Lloyd Wright's organic harmony with nature in Fallingwater (in western Pennsylvania) where the waterfall sounds and leafy surroundings offered a stress-reducing getaway for an urban executive, or Kevin Roche's open glass-walled Ford Foundation (in New York City) that promoted new team-oriented management strategies.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1995Windows,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Alavi, Maryann and Norman, Kent and Borkowski, Ellen Yu},
  title = {Windows of opportunity in electronic classrooms},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {38},
  number = {11},
  pages = {19--24},
  doi = {10.1145/219717.219725}
}
Chimera R and Shneiderman B (1994), "An exploratory evaluation of three interfaces for browsing large hierarchical tables of contents", ACM Transaction on Information Systems, Oct., 1994, Vol 12(4), pp. 383-406.
Abstract: Three different interfaces were used to browse a large (1296 items) table of contents. A fully expanded stable interface, expand/contract interface, and multipane interface were studied in a between-groups experiment with 41 novice participants. Nine timed fact retrieval tasks were performed; each task is analyzed and discussed separately. We found that both the expand/contract and multipane interfaces produced significantly faster times than the stable interface for many tasks using this large hierarchy; other advantages of the expand/contract and multipane interfaces over the stable interface are discussed. The animation characteristics of the expand/contract interface appear to play a major role. Refinements to the multipane and expand/contract interfaces are suggested. A predictive model for measuring navigation effort of each interface is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Chimera1994exploratory,
  author = {Chimera, Richard and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An exploratory evaluation of three interfaces for browsing large hierarchical tables of contents},
  journal = {ACM Transaction on Information Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {12},
  number = {4},
  pages = {383--406},
  doi = {10.1145/185462.185483}
}
Rivlin E, Botafogo R and Shneiderman B (1994), "Navigating in hyperspace: designing a structure-based toolbox", Communications of the ACM, Feb., 1994, Vol 37(2), pp. 87-96.
BibTeX:
@article{Rivlin1994Navigating,
  author = {Rivlin, Ehud and Botafogo, Rodrigo and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Navigating in hyperspace: designing a structure-based toolbox},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {37},
  number ={2},
  pages = {87--96},
  doi = {10.1145/175235.175242}
}
Sears A and Shneiderman B (1994), "Split menus: effectively using selection frequency to organize menus", ACM Transaction Computer-Human Interaction, March, 1994, Vol 1, pp. 27-51.
Abstract: When some items in a menu are selected more frequently than others, as is often the case, designers or individual users may be able to speed performance and improve preference ratings by placing several high-frequency items at the top of the menu. Design guidelines for split menus were developed and applied. Split menus were implemented and tested in two in situ usability studies and a controlled experiment. In the usability studies performance times were reduced by 17 to 58% depending on the site and menus. In the controlled experiment split menus were significantly faster than alphabetic menus and yielded significantly higher subjective preferences. A possible resolution to the continuing debate among cognitive theorists about predicting menu selection times is offered. We conjecture and offer evidence that, at least when selecting items from pull-down menus, a logarithmic model applies to familiar (high-frequency) items, and a linear model to unfamiliar (low-frequency) items.
BibTeX:
@article{Sears1994Split,
  author = {Sears, Andrew and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Split menus: effectively using selection frequency to organize menus},
  journal = {ACM Transaction Computer-Human Interaction},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {27--51},
  doi = {10.1145/174630.174632}
}
Shneiderman B (1994), "Dynamic queries for visual information seeking", Software IEEE, Nov., 1994, Vol 11(6), pp. 70 -77. Reprinted in Card, S., Mackinlay, J, and Shneiderman, B. (Editors), Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA (1999), 236-243.
Abstract: Considers how dynamic queries allow users to ldquo;fly through rdquo; databases by adjusting widgets and viewing the animated results. In studies, users reacted to this approach with an enthusiasm more commonly associated with video games. Adoption requires research into retrieval and display algorithms and user-interface design. The author discusses how experts may benefit from visual interfaces because they will be able to formulate more complex queries and interpret intricate results
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1994Dynamic,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Dynamic queries for visual information seeking},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {11},
  number = {6},
  pages = {70--77},
  doi = {10.1109/52.329404}
}
Karl LR, Pettey M and Shneiderman B (1993), "Speech versus mouse commands for word processing: an empirical evaluation", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol 39(4), pp. 667 - 687.
Abstract: Despite advances in speech technology, human factors research since the late 1970s has provided only weak evidence that automatic speech recognition devices are superior to conventional input devices such as keyboards and mice. However, recent studies indicate that there may be advantages to providing an additional input channel based on speech input to supplement the more common input modes. Recently the authors conducted an experiment to demonstrate the advantages of using speech-activated commands over mouse-activated commands for word processing applications when, in both cases, the keyboard is used for text entry and the mouse for direct manipulation. Sixteen experimental subjects, all professionals and all but one novice users of speech input, performed four simple word processing tasks using both input groups in this counterbalanced experiment. Performance times for all tasks were significantly faster when using speech to activate commands as opposed to using the mouse. On average, the reduction in task time due to using speech was 18·7%. The error rates due to subject mistakes were roughly the same for both input groups, and recognition errors, averaged over all the tasks, occurred for 6·3% of the speech-activated commands. Subjects made significantly more memorization errors when using speech as compared with the mouse for command activation. Overall, the subjects reacted positively to using speech input and preferred it over the mouse for command activation; however, they also voiced concerns about recognition accuracy, the interference of background noise, inadequate feedback and slow response time. The authors believe that the results of the experiment provide evidence for the utility of speech input for command activation in application programs.
BibTeX:
@article{Karl1993Speech,
  author = {Lewis R. Karl and Michael Pettey and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Speech versus mouse commands for word processing: an empirical evaluation},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {667--687},
  doi = {10.1006/imms.1993.1078}
}
Sears A, Revis D, Swatski J, Crittenden R and Shneiderman B (1993), "Investigating Touchscreen Typing: The effect of keyboard size on typing speed", Behaviour and Information Technology. Vol. 12, pp. 17-22.
Abstract: Two studies investigated the effect keyboard size has on typing speed and error rates for touchscreen keyboards using the lift-off strategy. A cursor appeared when users touched the screen and a key was selected when they lifted their finger from the screen. Four keyboard sizes were investigated ranging from 24.6 cm to 6.8 cm wide. Results indicate that novices can type approximately 10 words per minute (WPM) on the smallest keyboard and 20 WPM on the largest. Experienced users improved to 21 WPM on the smallest keyboard and 32 WPM on the largest. These results indicate that, although slower, small touchscreen keyboards can be used for limited data entry when the presence of a regular keyboard is not practical. Applications include portable pocket-sized or palmtop computers, messaging systems, and personal information resources. Results also suggest the increased importance of experience on these smaller keyboards. Research directions are suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{Sears1993Investigating,
  author = {Andrew Sears and Doreen Revis and Janet Swatski and Rob Crittenden and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Investigating Touchscreen Typing: The effect of keyboard size on typing speed},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {17--22},
  doi = {10.1080/01449299308924362},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01449299308924362#.U8QwSpRdVnE}
}
Shneiderman B (1993), "Beyond intelligent machines: just do it", Software, IEEE, Jan., 1993, Vol 10(1), pp. 100 -103.
Abstract: The author argues that users want a sense of direct and immediate control over computers that differs from how they interact with people. He presents several examples of these predictable and controllable interfaces developed in the lab. The examples include tree maps and dynamic queries
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1993Beyond,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Beyond intelligent machines: just do it},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {100--103},
  doi = {10.1109/52.207235}
}
Shneiderman B and Lewis C (1993), "Building HCI partnerships and infrastructure", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 12(2), pp. 130-135.
Abstract: Abstract As policymakers and technology planners respond to the growing activity in human-computer interaction, a broad perspective may be helpful. This article offers a top-down view of current activities and suggests opportunities and challenges for the continued growth of HCI. Partnerships among universities, corporations, government agencies, and professional societies are proposed. Infrastructure needs to support this new discipline are outlined.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1993Building,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Lewis, Clayton},
  title = {Building HCI partnerships and infrastructure},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {130--135},
  doi = {10.1080/01449299308924373}
}
Weiland WJ and Shneiderman B (1993), "A graphical query interface based on aggregation/generalization hierarchies", Information Systems, June, 1993, Vol 18(4), pp. 215-232.
Abstract: In order for automated information systems to be used effectively, they must be made easily accessible to a wide range of users and with short training periods. This work proposes a method of organizing documents based on the concepts of aggregation and generalization hierarchies. We propose a graphical user interface to provide a more intuitive form of Boolean query. This design is based on mapping the nodes of the aggregation hierarchy to Boolean intersection operations, mapping the nodes of the generalization hierarchy to Boolean union operations, and providing a concrete, graphical, manipulable representation of both of these node types. Finally, a working prototype interface was constructed and evaluated experimentally against a classical command-line Boolean query interface. In this formative evaluation with sixteen subjects, the graphical interface produced less than one-tenth the errors of the textual interface, on average. Significant differences in time spent specifying queries were not found. Observations and comments provide guidance for designers.
BibTeX:
@article{Weiland1993graphical,
  author = {Weiland, William J. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A graphical query interface based on aggregation/generalization hierarchies},
  journal = {Information Systems},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science Ltd.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {18},
  number = {4},
  pages = {215--232},
  doi = {10.1016/0306-4379(93)90018-V}
}
Young D and Shneiderman B (1993), "A graphical filter/flow representation of Boolean queries: a prototype implementation and evaluation", Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol 44(6), pp. 327-339.
Abstract: One of the powerful applications of Boolean expression is to allow users to extract relevant information from a database. Unfortunately, previous research has shown that users have difficulty specifying Boolean queries. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, a graphical Filter/Flow representation of Boolean queries was designed to provide users with an interface that visually conveys the meaning of the Boolean operators (AND, OR and NOT). This was accomplished by implementing a graphical interface prototype that uses the metaphor of water flowing through filters. Twenty subjects with no experience with Boolean logic participated in an experiment comparing the Boolean operations represented in the Filter/Flow interface with a textonly SQL interface. The subjects independently performed five comprehension tasks and five composition tasks in each of the interfaces. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in the total number of correct queries in each of the comprehension and composition tasks was found favoring Filter/Flow.
BibTeX:
@article{Young1993graphical,
  author = {Young, Degi and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A graphical filter/flow representation of Boolean queries: a prototype implementation and evaluation},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  publisher = {UM Computer Science Department; CS-TR-2905},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {44},
  number = {6},
  pages = {327--339},
  url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jtoc/27981/}
}
Botafogo RA, Rivlin E and Shneiderman B (1992), "Structural analysis of hypertexts: identifying hierarchies and useful metrics", ACM Transactions on Information Systems, April, 1992, Vol 10, pp. 142-180.
Abstract: Hypertext users often suffer from the “lost in hyperspace” problem: disorientation from too many jumps while traversing a complex network. One solution to this problem is improved authoring to create more comprehensible structures. This paper proposes several authoring tools, based on hypertext structure analysis. In many hypertext systems authors are encouraged to create hierarchical structures, but when writing, the hierarchy is lost because of the inclusion of cross-reference links. The first part of this paper looks at ways of recovering lost hierarchies and finding new ones, offering authors different views of the same hypertext. The second part helps authors by identifying properties of the hypertext document. Multiple metrics are developed including compactness and stratum. Compactness indicates the intrinsic connectedness of the hypertext, and stratum reveals to what degree the hypertext is organized so that some nodes must be read before others. Several existing hypertexts are used to illustrate the benefits of each technique. The collection of techniques provides a multifaceted view of the hypertext, which should allow authors to reduce undesired structural complexity and create documents that readers can traverse more easily.
BibTeX:
@article{Botafogo1992Structural,
  author = {Botafogo, Rodrigo A. and Rivlin, Ehud and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Structural analysis of hypertexts: identifying hierarchies and useful metrics},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Information Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {142--180},
  doi = {10.1145/146802.146826}
}
Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1992), "Scheduling home control devices: design issues and usability evaluation of four touchscreen interfaces", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol 36(3), pp. 375 - 393.
Abstract: This article describes four different user interfaces supporting scheduling two state (ON/OFF) devices over time periods ranging from minutes to days. The touchscreen-based user interfaces including a digital, 12-hour clock, 24-hour linear and 24-hour dial prototypes are described and compared on a feature by feature basis. An informal usability test with 14 subjects, feedback from more than 30 reviewers, and the flexibility to add functions favors the 24-hour linear version.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1992Scheduling,
  author = {Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Scheduling home control devices: design issues and usability evaluation of four touchscreen interfaces},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {36},
  number = {3},
  pages = {375 - 393},
  doi = {10.1016/0020-7373(92)90040-R}
}
Shneiderman B (1992), "Tree visualization with tree-maps: 2-d space-filling approach", ACM Transactions on Graphics, Jan., 1992, Vol 11, pp. 92-99.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1992Tree,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Tree visualization with tree-maps: 2-d space-filling approach},
  journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {92--99},
  doi = {10.1145/102377.115768}
}
Sears A and Shneiderman B (1991), "High precision touchscreens: design strategies and comparisons with a mouse", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, April, 1991, Vol 34, pp. 593-613.
Abstract: Three studies were conducted comparing speed of performance, error rates, and user preference ratings for three selection devices. The devices tested were a touchscreen, a touchscreen with stabilization (stabilization software filters and smooths raw data from hardware), and a mouse. The task was the selection of rectangular targets 1, 4, 16, and 32 pixels per side (0.4x0.6, 1.7x2.2, 6.9x9.0, 13.8x17.9 mm respectively). Touchscreen users were able to point at single pixel targets, thereby countering widespread expectations of poor touchscreen resolution. The results show no difference in performance between the mouse and touchscreen for targets ranging from 32 to 4 pixels per side. In addition, stabilization significantly reduced the error rates for the touchscreen when selecting small targets. These results imply that touchscreens, when properly used, have attractive advantages in selecting targets as small as 4 pixels per size (approximately one-quarter of the size of a single character). A variant of Fitts' Law is proposed to predict touchscreen pointing times. Ideas for future research are also presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Sears1991High,
  author = {Sears, Andrew and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {High precision touchscreens: design strategies and comparisons with a mouse},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  publisher = {Academic Press Ltd.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {593--613},
  doi = {10.1016/0020-7373(91)90037-8}
}
Shneiderman B, Plaisant C, Botafogo R, Hopkins D and Weiland W (1991), "Designing to facilitate browsing: A look back at the Hyperties workstation browser", Hypermedia, May, 1991, Vol 3, pp. 101-117.
Abstract: Since browsing hypertext can present a formidable cognitive challenge, user interface design plays a major role in determining acceptability. In the Unix workstation version of Hyperties, a research-oriented prototype, we focussed on design features that facilitate browsing. We first give a general overview of Hyperties and its markup language. Customizable documents can be generated by the conditional text feature that enables dynamic and selective display of text and graphics.

In addition we present:
- an innovative solution to link identification: pop-out graphical buttons of arbitrary shape.
- application of pie menus to permit low cognitive load actions that reduce the distraction of common actions, such as page turning or window selection.
- multiple window selection strategies that reduce clutter and housekeeping effort. We preferred piles-of-tiles, in which standard-sized windows were arranged in a consistent pattern on the display and actions could be done rapidly, allowing users to concentrate on the contents.

BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1991Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Botafogo, Rodrigo and Hopkins, Don and Weiland, William},
  title = {Designing to facilitate browsing: A look back at the Hyperties workstation browser},
  journal = {Hypermedia},
  publisher = {Taylor Graham Publishing},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {101--117},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=131443.131455}
}
Shneiderman B (1991), "Touch screens now offer compelling uses", Software, IEEE, March, 1991, Vol 8(2), pp. 93 -94.
Abstract: Research on improving the user interfaces of touch screen applications is described. The advantages of touch screens are discusses, their current capabilities are examined, and possible future developments are considered.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1991Touch,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Touch screens now offer compelling uses},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {93--94},
  doi = {10.1109/52.73754}
}
Faloutsos C, Lee R, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1990), "Incorporating String Search in a Hypertext System: User Interface and Signature File Design Issues", HyperMedia, Vol 2, pp. 183-200.
Abstract: Hypertext systems provide an appealing mechanism for informally browsing databases by traversing selectable links. However, in many fact finding situations string search is an effective complement to browsing. This paper describes the application of the signature file method to achieve rapid and convenient string search in small personal computer hypertext environments. The method has been implemented in a prototype, as well as in a commercial product. Performance data for search times and storage space are presented from a commercial hypertext database. User interface issues are then discussed. Experience with the string search interface indicates that it was used sucessfully by novice users.
BibTeX:
@article{Faloutsos1990Incorporating,
  author = {Christos Faloutsos and Raymond Lee and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Incorporating String Search in a Hypertext System: User Interface and Signature File Design Issues},
  journal = {HyperMedia},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {183--200},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.29.5553}
}
Jones T and Shneiderman B (1990), "Examining usability for a training-oriented hypertext: Can hyper-activity be good?", Electronic Publishing, Nov., 1990, Vol 3(4), pp. 207-225.
Abstract: This paper describes the design and evaluation of a hypertext-based tutorial for hypertext authors. This 85-article tutorial represents an innovative application of hypertext to procedural learning. The work has been guided by Carroll's minimalist mode l, and by the syntactic/semantic model of user behavior. The usability study involved 8 subjects who studied the Hyperties Author Tutorial (HAT) for approximately one hour and then performed a set of authoring tasks in an average of 21 minutes. All user s successfully completed the tasks. As a result of the study, we provide a characterization of appropriate uses of hypertext for training, and describe the meaning of a hyper-active environment.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Jones1990Examining,
  author = {Tricia Jones and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Examining usability for a training-oriented hypertext: Can hyper-activity be good?},
  journal = {Electronic Publishing},
  year = {1990},
  number = {4},
  pages = {207--225},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.39.5063}
}
Shneiderman B (1990), "Future directions for Human Computer Interaction", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 2(1), pp. 73-90.
Abstract: This article offers a set of goals for user interface development, followed by scenarios of future developments. The applications include home control, hypermedia, office automation, digital photography, collaborative meetings/classrooms, public access, professional workstations, and medical record keeping. Also, predictions are made for some of the underlying technologies such as User Interface Management Systems, remote control, flexible search, display devices, and touchscreens.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1990Future,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Future directions for Human Computer Interaction},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {73--90},
  doi = {10.1080/10447319009525971}
}
Furuta R, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1989), "Automatically transforming regularly structured linear documents into hypertext", Electronic Publishing, Dec., 1989, Vol 2(4), pp. 211-229.
Abstract: Fully automatic conversion of a paper-based document into hypertext can be achieved in many cases if the original document is naturally partitioned into a collection of small-sized pieces that are unambiguously and consistently structured. We describe the methodology that we have used successfully to design and implement several straightforward conversions from the original document’s machine-readable markup.
BibTeX:
@article{Furuta1989Automatically,
  author = {Furuta, R. and Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Automatically transforming regularly structured linear documents into hypertext},
  journal = {Electronic Publishing},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons Ltd.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {211--229},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=85387.85391}
}
Furuta R, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1989), "A spectrum of automatic hypertext constructions", Hypermedia, July, 1989, Vol 1(2), pp. 179-195.
BibTeX:
@article{Furuta1989spectrum,
  author = {Furuta, Richard and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A spectrum of automatic hypertext constructions},
  journal = {Hypermedia},
  publisher = {Taylor Graham Publishing},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {1},
  number = {2},
  pages = {179--195},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=106879.106884}
}
Potter R, Berman M and Shneiderman B (1989), "An experimental evaluation of three touch screen strategies within a hypertext database", International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 1(1), pp. 41-52.
Abstract: High resolution touch screens and novel usage strategies have overcome earlier problems with parallax and inaccurate pointing. A study testing the utility of three touch screen strategies within the Hyperties hypertext environment was performed. This provided a replication and extension of an earlier touch screen strategy comparison that focused on small closely-spaced targets. The experiment compared three touch screen strategies in three experimental tasks that reflect hypertext usage. The results showed that a strategy that only uses the initial impact with the touch screen causes the use to miss the target more than other touch strategies. A statisticallyx significant difference in errors was found. Our results should encourage system implementers and touch screen hardware desiners to support "touch mouse" strategies that enable coursor dragging on the touch screen surface.
BibTeX:
@article{Potter1989experimental,
  author = {Potter, Richard and Berman, Mitchell and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An experimental evaluation of three touch screen strategies within a hypertext database},
  journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {41--52},
  doi = {10.1080/10447318909525956}
}
Seabrook, RH. and Shneiderman, B. (1989), "The user interface in a hypertext, multiwindow program browser", Interacting with Computers, Vol 1(3), pp. 301 - 337.
Abstract: The program browsing problem is discussed, with particular emphasis on a multiple-window user interface and its implications for recording acquired knowledge, navigation, and attention-tracking. Hypertext systems are considered as an implementation of browsing techniques for nonprogram text. A classification scheme for text-viewing systems is offered, and then browsing is discussed as a nonintrusive, static technique for program study.
Multiple techniques are synthesised into a coherent plan for a multiwindow program study tool, based on theories of program browsing and the use of hypertext. A test system, HYBROW, emerged from the plan for studying the application of several hypertext multiple-window techniques to program browsing, especially window replacement. HYBROW is a hypertext, multiple-window program browser. This generic tool is applicable to any source language, although certain aspects of the preprocessing and the hierarchical browser presentation are specific to the C language. The tool permits opening an arbitrary number of text windows into an arbitrary number of files, rapid window switching, multiple-window search, placemarking, automatic screen organisation, and services for the creation, maintenance and production of study notes. An informal usability study was conducted.
BibTeX:
@article{Seabrook1989user,
  author = {Richard H.C. Seabrook and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {The user interface in a hypertext, multiwindow program browser},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {301--337},
  doi = {10.1016/0953-5438(89)90018-0}
}
Brethauer, D., Plaisant, C., Potter, R., and Shneiderman, B. (1989), "Evaluating Three Museum Installations of a Hypertext System", Journal of the American Society for Information Science, May, 1989, Vol 40, pp. 172-182.
Abstract: This study explores the use of a hypertext system by patrons of three museums. Data on the articles accessed, the time spent in each, the number of times the index was accessed, etc. were collected from a total of more than 5000 sessions. Results show that visitors at all three museums used the embedded menus of the Hyperties hypertext system in moving from one article to another far more than the traditional index. Article selection appears to reflect anticipated interests of patrons at each museum suggesting success in traversing the database. At the third museum, the data collection was complemented by direct observation and interviews of the museum patrons. This approach appears to be more appropriate to analyze the usage data as well as to improve the user interface and database structure.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1989Evaluating,
  author = {Brethauer, D., Plaisant, C., Potter, R., and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Evaluating Three Museum Installations of a Hypertext System},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {172--182},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.30.120}
}
Marchionini G and Shneiderman B (1988), "Finding facts vs. browsing knowledge in hypertext systems", Computer, IEEE., Jan, 1988, Vol 21(1), pp. 70-80.
Abstract: The authors discuss the role of information retrieval, interface design, and cognitive science in hypertext research. They present a user-centered framework for information-seeking that has been used in evaluating two hypertext systems. They apply the framework to key design issues related to information retrieval in hypertext systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Marchionini1988Finding,
  author = {Marchionini, G. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Finding facts vs. browsing knowledge in hypertext systems},
  journal = {Computer},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {21},
  number = {1},
  pages = {70--80},
  doi = {10.1109/2.222119}
}
Ostroff D and Shneiderman B (1988), "Selection devices for users of an electronic encyclopedia: an empirical comparison of four possibilities", Information Processing and Management, Nov., 1988, Vol 24(6), pp. 665-680.
Abstract: This study measured the speed, error rates, and subjective evaluation of arrow-jump keys, a jump-mouse, number keys, and a touch screen in an interactive encyclopedia. A summary of previous studies comparing selection devices and strategies is presented to provide the background for this study. We found the touch screen to be the fastest in time, the least accurate but the overall favorite of the participants. The results are discussed and improvements are suggested accordingly.
BibTeX:
@article{Ostroff1988Selection,
  author = {Ostroff, Daniel and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Selection devices for users of an electronic encyclopedia: an empirical comparison of four possibilities},
  journal = {Information Processing and Management},
  publisher = {Pergamon Press, Inc.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {24},
  number = {6},
  pages = {665--680},
  doi = {10.1016/0306-4573(88)90004-0}
}
Shneiderman B and Carroll JM (1988), "Ecological studies of professional programmers", Communications of the ACM, Nov., 1988, Vol 31(11), pp. 1256-1258.
Abstract: For over two decades, software psychology researchers have been developing insights to software productivity and quality by investigating builders and users of software. This research has been diverse in both its approach and its impacts. It has introduced systematic behavioral measurement into the software development process and into research on new software techniques and technologies, and has also opened up new social and cognitive interpretations of software processes [5, 12]. We now see evidence of a new thrust in software psychology coming to the fore, one in which usability researchers are direct participants in the definition and creation of new software artifacts. We call this paradigm Ecological Design, to emphasize (1) that realistic software situations are being confronted on their own terms, and (2) that the work is directed toward design results, not merely toward evaluation and description in the service of design goals. The reorientation towards studying teamwork was prompted in 1971 by Weinberg and followed by a few researchers at that time, but the movement has accelerated with the recent and intense interest in computer supported collaborative work [15]. This was apparent in the papers presented at the two workshops on Empirical Studies of Programmers [10, 13]. An accompanying shift has also occurred in the software engineering community. The traditional waterfall model of software development with the precise specification of a provable topdown design is giving way to newer exploratory styles of program development that emphasize rapid prototyping and iterative refinement. The shift from product to process also puts greater emphasis on team organization, group processes, management policies, reusability, development tools, design methods, debugging strategies, and maintenance [6]. The three papers in this special section exemplify this new paradigm. Rosson, Maass, and Kellogg and Curtis, Krasner, and Iscoe describe highly qualitative studies of professional designers that produced specific technical proposals for improving software tools and the coordination of project management, an assessment of major bottlenecks, and a new framework for thinking about software design as a learning and communication process. Soloway, Pinto, Letovsky, Littman, and Lampert describe the design and exploration of software documentation that grew out of similarly qualitative studies of program maintenance. We caution that this research paradigm is still in its infancy: setting design requirements and developing prototypes are not traditional activities of psychological researchers. These roles are still emerging, still being reconciled with the earlier paradigms. The particular projects highlighted here are only the beginning; the field continues to evolve, as more researchers are attracted, as more topics are explored, as more methods are developed. Thus, despite the shortcomings of any particular project, the trajectory of this paradigm seems clear to us: it is the development of ideas that directly impact productivity and quality in software. Indeed, part of our intention in presenting this special section is to encourage more and more rapid development of the new paradigm.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1988Ecological,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Carroll, John M.},
  title = {Ecological studies of professional programmers},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {31},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1256--1258},
  doi = {10.1145/50087.214900}
}
Shneiderman B (1988), "We can design better user interfaces: A review of human-computer interaction styles", Ergonomics, Vol 31(5), pp. 699-710. Also appeared as keynote address in the Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association, Sydney, Australia, August 1-5, 1988, 48-57.
Abstract: The widespread use of computers has opened a new dimension of application for the ergonomic sciences. This review recommends three pillars to support the user interface design process: guidelines documents, User Interface Management Systems, and usability labs for iterative testing. Then it presents five primary interaction styles: menu selection, form fill-in, command language, natural language and direct manipulation. The author encourages greater attention to direct manipulation in which the objects and actions are visible, the actions are invoked by selection or pointing, and the impact is immediately visible and reversible.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1988We,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {We can design better user interfaces: A review of human-computer interaction styles},
  journal = {Ergonomics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {31},
  number = {5},
  pages = {699--710},
  doi = {10.1080/00140138808966713}
}
Laverson A, Norman K and Shneiderman B (1987), "An evaluation of jump-ahead techniques in menu selection", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 6(2), pp. 97-108.
Abstract: Menu selection systems provide a means of selecting operations and retrieving information which requires little training and reduces the need for memorizing complex command sequences. However, a major disadvantage of many menu selection systems is that experienced users cannot traverse the menu tree significantly faster than novices. A common solution to this problem is to provide the menu selection system with a jump-ahead capability. The purpose of this research was to evaluate two jump-ahead methods (type-ahead and direct-access). In the type-ahead method the user anticipates a selection on each of several successive menus and enters as many selections at one time as desired. In the direct-access method, each menu frame is assigned a unique name which the user must enter to locate it. Thirty-two students were given training on an information retrieval system for college course information and were required to learn the two jump-ahead methods in a counter-balanced design. The direct-access method resulted in fewer traversals to learn the system, lower error rates, and reduced learning time. The subjective impressions, obtained from post-experiment questionnaires and oral comments indicated that the direct-access jump-ahead method was also preferred in a frequently used menu selection system.
BibTeX:
@article{Laverson1987evaluation,
  author = {Laverson, Alan and Norman, Kent and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An evaluation of jump-ahead techniques in menu selection},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {6},
  number = {2},
  pages = {97--108},
  doi = {10.1080/01449298708901820}
}
Blank D, Murphy PA and Shneiderman B (1986), "A comparison of children's reading comprehension and reading rates at three text presentation speeds on a CRT", Journal of Computer Based Instruction, Aug., 1986, Vol 13(3), pp. 84-87.
BibTeX:
@article{Blank1986comparison,
  author = {Blank, Deborah and Murphy, Patricia A and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A comparison of children's reading comprehension and reading rates at three text presentation speeds on a CRT},
  journal = {Journal of Computer Based Instruction},
  publisher = {Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  number = {3},
  pages = {84--87},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=15451.15456}
}
Ewing J, Mehrabanzad S, Sheck S, Ostroff D and Shneiderman B (1986), "An experimental comparison of a mouse and arrow-jump keys for an interactive encyclopedia", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Jan., 1986, Vol 24, pp. 29-45.
Abstract: This paper reports on an experiment which was conducted to examine relative merits of using a mouse or arrow-jump keys to select text in an interactive enclyclopedia. Timed path traversals were performed by subjects using each device, and were followed by subjective questions. Personality and background of the subjects were recorded to see if those attributes would affect device preference and performance. The arrow-jump keys were found to have the quickest traversal times for paths with either short or long target distances. The subjective responses indicated that the arrow-jump method was overwhelmingly preferred over the mouse method. Personality type was not found to play a critical role.
BibTeX:
@article{Ewing1986experimental,
  author = {Ewing, J and Mehrabanzad, S and Sheck, S and Ostroff, D and Shneiderman, B},
  title = {An experimental comparison of a mouse and arrow-jump keys for an interactive encyclopedia},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  publisher = {Academic Press Ltd.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {29--45},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(86)80038-4}
}
Koved L and Shneiderman B (1986), "Embedded menus: selecting items in context", Communications of the ACM, April, 1986, Vol 29(4), pp. 312-318. Also appeared as IBM Research Report RC 11310 (August 13, 1985). Reprinted in Hebrew in Maaseh-Hoshev.
Abstract: In many situations, embedded menus represent an attractive alternative to the more traditional explicit menus, particularly in touchtext, spelling checkers, language-based program editors, and graphics-based systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Koved1986Embedded,
  author = {Koved, Larry and Scneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Embedded menus: selecting items in context},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {29},
  number - {4},
  pages = {312--318},
  doi = {10.1145/5684.5687}
}
MacArthur CA and Shneiderman B (1986), "Learning disabled students' difficulties in learning to use a word processor: implications for design", ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, Jan., 1986, Vol 17(3), pp. 41-46.
Abstract: Learning disabled students can derive great benefits from using work processors. The ability to produce a neat, printed copy can increase motivation and encourage writing for a wider audience. The editing power makes revision possible without tedious re-copying, thus freeing students and teachers to approach writing as a process involving repeated drafts. Specific problems with handwriting and spelling can also be circumvented. However, learning to use the editing capabilities often presents problems for students, especially those with learning difficulties. Word processors must be designed that are simple, easy to learn, and yet powerful. This study makes software design recommendations based on a study of learning disabled students learning to use word processing.Two groups of four LD students (4th-6th grade) were given twelve hours of word processing instruction using two word processors. Detailed records of progess and errors were made during learning and a final assessment task. Specific design problems are reported and recommendations are made for tasks such as cursor movement, insertion/deletion, use of nulls, blanks, and formatting characters, and overall organization.
BibTeX:
@article{MacArthur1986Learning,
  author = {MacArthur, Charles A. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Learning disabled students' difficulties in learning to use a word processor: implications for design},
  journal = {ACM Special Interest Group on Computer–Human Interaction Bulletin},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {41--46},
  doi = {10.1145/15671.15675}
}
Norman KL, Weldon LJ and Shneiderman B (1986), "Cognitive layouts of windows and multiple screens for user interfaces", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Aug., 1986, Vol 25(2), pp. 229-248.
Abstract: In order to make computers easier to use and more versatile many system designers are exploring the use of multiple windows on a single screen and multiple coordinated screens in a single work station displaying linked or related information. The designers of such systems attempt to take into account the characteristics of the human user and the structure of the tasks to be performed. Central to this design issue is the way in which the user views and cognitively processes information presented in the windows or in multiple screens. This paper develops a theory of the "cognitive layout" of information presented in multiple windows or screens. It is assumed that users adopt a cognitive representation or layout of the type of information to be presented and the relationships among the window of screens and the information they contain. A number of cognitive layouts are derived from theories in cognitive psychology and are discussed in terms of the intent of the software driving the system and congruence with the cognitive processing of the information. It is hypothesized that the particular layout adopted by a user will drastically affect the user's understanding and expectation of events at the human-computer interface and could either greatly facilitate or frustrate the interaction. Ways of ensuring the former and avoiding the latter are discussed in terms of implementations on existing multiple-window and multiple-screen systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Norman1986Cognitive,
  author = {Norman, Kent L. and Weldon, Linda J. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Cognitive layouts of windows and multiple screens for user interfaces},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  publisher = {Academic Press Ltd.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229--248},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(86)80077-3}
}
Shneiderman B (1986), "Designing menu selection systems", Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol 37(2), pp. 57-70.
Abstract: Menu selection systems reduce training and memorization, simplify entry of choices, and structure the user's tasks. However, the use of menu selection is no guarantee that novices or experts will be satisfied or able to carry out their work. This article focuses on the multiple design Issues in creating successful menu selection systems. These Include the primary Issue of semantic organization and the host of secondary issues such as response time and display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Novel approaches such as popup menus and embedded menus are covered. Experimental results and design guidelines are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1986Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing menu selection systems},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {57--70},
  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(198603)37:2%3C57::AID-ASI2%3E3.0.CO;2-S/abstract}
}
Shneiderman B, Shafer P, Simon R and Weldon L (1986), "Display Strategies for Program Browsing: Concepts and Experiment", Software, IEEE., May, 1986, Vol 3(3), pp. 7-15.
Abstract: The new, larger display screens can improve program comprehension #8212;if the added space is used for mome effective presentation, not just more code or larger type.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1986Display,
  author = {Shneiderman, B. and Shafer, P. and Simon, R. and Weldon, L.},
  title = {Display Strategies for Program Browsing: Concepts and Experiment},
  journal = {Software, IEEE},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {7--15},
  doi = {10.1109/MS.1986.233405}
}
Parton D, Huffman K, Pridgen P, Norman K and Shneiderman B (1985), "Learning a menu selection tree: training methods compared", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 4(2), pp. 81-91.
Abstract: Abstract Abstract. Menu selection systems sometimes present learning problems for novice users. This comparison of four training methods for novice users found that the global tree diagram of the menu system was superior to command sequence and frame presentation methods, and somewhat better than trial and error. Methods were evaluated on the basis of (1) number of target nodes found, (2) mean number of selections to a target node, (3) recall of the menu structure, and (4) subjective rating of ease of learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Parton1985Learning,
  author = {Parton, Diana and Huffman, Keith and Pridgen, Patty and Norman, Kent and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Learning a menu selection tree: training methods compared},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {81--91},
  doi = {10.1080/01449298508901790}
}
Shneiderman B (1985), "The Relationship Between COBOL and Computer Science", Annals of the History of Computing, Oct., 1985, Vol 7(4), pp. 348-352. Reprinted in E. Horowitz, Programming Languages: A Grand Tour, 3rd Edition, Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD, (1986), 417-421.
Abstract: Based on interviews, reviews of the literature, and personal impressions, the author offers historical, technical, and social/psychological perspectives on the fragile relationship between COBOL and computer science. The technical contributions of COBOL to programming language design are evaluated. Five proposals for computer science research on COBOL and fourth-generation languages are described.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1985Relationship,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The Relationship Between COBOL and Computer Science},
  journal = {Annals of the History of Computing},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4},
  pages = {348--352},
  doi = {10.1109/MAHC.1985.10041}
}
Powers M, Lashley C, Sanchez P and Shneiderman B (1984), "An experimental comparison of tabular and graphic data presentation", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol 20(6), pp. 545-566.
Abstract: We present the results of our experiment designed to test the hypothesis that more usable information can be conveyed using a combination of graphical and tabular data then by using either form alone. Our independent variables were memory (recall and non-recall) and form (tables, graphs, or both). Comprehension was measured with a multiple choice exam consisting of three types of questions (retrieve, compare, or compare/calculate answers). Both non-recall and tabular treatments significantly increased comprehension. Combinations of graphs and tables produced slower but more accurate performance. An executive should use the form with which he/she is most familiar and comfortable.
BibTeX:
@article{Powers1984experimental,
  author = {Matthew Powers and Conda Lashley and Pamela Sanchez and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {An experimental comparison of tabular and graphic data presentation},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {20},
  number = {6},
  pages = {545--566},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(84)80029-2}
}
Shneiderman B (1984), "The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation", Behaviour and Information Technology, Vol 1(3), pp. 237-256. Keynote address - NYU Symposium on User Interfaces - published in Human Factors and Interactive Computer Systems, Y. Vassiliou, Ed., Ablex Publ., Norwood, NJ, (1983).
Abstract: This paper suggests three motivations for the strong interest in human factors' aspects of user interfaces and reviews five design issues: command language versus menu selection, response time and display rates, wording of system messages, on-line tutorials, explanations and help messages and hardware devices. Five methods and tools for system development are considered: participatory design, specification methods, software implementation tools, pilot studies and acceptance tests and evolutionary refinement based on user feedback. The final portion of the paper presents direct manipulation, an approach which promises to become widely used in interactive systems. Direct manipulation involves representation of the object of interest, rapid incremental reversible actions and physical action instead of complex syntax.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1984future,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation},
  journal = {Behaviour and Information Technology},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1--28},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01449298208914450#.U8V5rpRdVnE}
}
Shneiderman B (1984), "Response time and display rate in human performance with computers", ACM Computing Surveys, Sep., 1984, Vol 16(3), pp. 265-285.
Abstract: The pace of human-computer interaction is an important issue to computer scientists and computer users alike. Experimental results have begun to shed some light on this complex, controversml, and vital subject. This paper revmws the theory and reports on experimental results concerning display rates, response time expectations and attitudes, user productivity, and variability. The decomposition of concerns and tasks helps to clarify the issues, but substanhal effort remains before a predictive model can emerge. In general, the results indicate that frequent users prefer response times of less than a second for most tasks, and that productwlty does increase as response time decreases. However, error rates increase with too short or too long a response time. Users pick up the pace of the system, but the profile of commands may change with the speed of the system.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1984Response,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Response time and display rate in human performance with computers},
  journal = {ACM Computing Surveys},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {265--285},
  doi = {10.1145/2514.2517}
}
Miara RJ, Musselman JA, Navarro JA and Shneiderman B (1983), "Program indentation and comprehensibility", Communications of the ACM, Nov., 1983, Vol 26(11), pp. 861-867.
Abstract: The consensus in the programming community is that indentation aids program comprehension, although many studies do not back this up. We tested program comprehension on a Pascal program. Two styles of indentation were used-blocked and nonblocked- in addition to four possible levels of indentation 0, 2, 4, 6 spaces. Both experienced and novice subjects were used. Although blocking style made no difference, the level of indentation had a significant effect on program comprehension. 2-4 spaces had the highest mean score for program comprehension. We recommend that a moderate level of indentation be used to increase program comprehension and user satisfaction.
BibTeX:
@article{Miara1983Program,
  author = {Miara, Richard J. and Musselman, Joyce A. and Navarro, Juan A. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Program indentation and comprehensibility},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {26},
  number = {11},
  pages = {861--867},
  doi = {10.1145/182.358437}
}
Shneiderman B (1983), "Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages", Computer, IEEE., Aug., 1983, Vol 16(8), pp. 57-69.
Abstract: Direct manipulation systems offer the satisfying experience of operating on visible objects. The computer becomes transparent, and users can concentrate on their tasks.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1983Direct,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages},
  journal = {Computer},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {16},
  number = {8},
  pages = {57--69},
  doi = {10.1109/MC.1983.1654471}
}
Sykes F, Tillman RT and Shneiderman B (1983), "The effect of scope delimiters on program comprehension", Software: Practice and Experience, Vol 13(9), pp. 817-824.
Abstract: Scope delimiters, such as BEGIN-END or DO-END, are used in many programming languages, but they can lengthen and clutter a program listing. This paper provides experimental evidence that ENDIF or ENDWHILE statement terminators make for easier to comprehend programs than BEGIN-END pairs surrounding compound statements.
BibTeX:
@article{Sykes1983effect,
  author = {Sykes, Floyd and Tillman, Raymond T. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The effect of scope delimiters on program comprehension},
  journal = {Software: Practice and Experience},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {13},
  number = {9},
  pages = {817--824},
  doi = {10.1002/spe.4380130908}
}
Shneiderman B and Thomas G (1982), "An architecture for automatic relational database sytem conversion", ACM Transactions on Database Systems, June, 1982, Vol 7, pp. 235-257.
Abstract: Changes in requirements for database systems necessitate schema restructuring, database translation, and application or query program conversion. An alternative to the lengthy manual revision process is proposed by offering a set of 15 transformations keyed to the relational model of data and the relational algebra. Motivations, examples, and detailed descriptions are provided.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1982architecture,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Thomas, Glenn},
  title = {An architecture for automatic relational database sytem conversion},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Database Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {235--257},
  doi = {10.1145/319702.319724}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "Control flow and data structure documentation: two experiments", Communications of the ACM, Jan., 1982, Vol 25(1), pp. 55-63.
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out to assess the utility of external documentation aids such as macro flowcharts, pseudocode, data structure diagrams, and data structure descriptions. A 223 line Pascal program which manipulates four arrays was used. The program interactively handles commands that allow the user to manage five lists of items. A comprehension test was given to participants along with varying kinds of external documentation. The results indicate that for this program the data structure information was more helpful than the control flow information, independently of whether textual or graphic formats were used.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1982Control,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Control flow and data structure documentation: two experiments},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1},
  pages = {55--63},
  doi = {10.1145/358315.358391}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "Designing computer system messages", Communications of the ACM, Sep., 1982, Vol 25(9), pp. 610-611. Reprinted by Datapro.
Abstract: In our use of interactive computer systems and studies of their users, we have become increasingly aware of the importance of system messages. Novice users are unimpressed with CPU speeds, disk storage capabilities, or elegant file structures. For them, the system appears only in the form of the messages on their screens or printers. So when novices encounter violent messages such as “FATAL ERROR, RUN ABORTED”, vague phases like “ILLEGAL CMD”, or obscure codes such as “OC7” or “IEH2191”, they are understandably shaken, confused, dismayed, and discouraged from continuing. The negative image that computer systems sometimes generate is, we believe, largely due to the difficulties users experience when they make mistakes or are unsure about what to do next.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1982Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing computer system messages},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {25},
  number = {9},
  pages = {610--611},
  doi = {10.1145/358628.358639}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "Multiparty Grammars and Related Features for Defining Interactive Systems", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, March, 1982, Vol 12(2), pp. 148-154.
Abstract: Multiparty grammars are introduced which contain labeled nonterminals to indicate the party that produces the terminal string. For interactive person-computer systems, both the user commands and system responses can be described by the linked BNF grammars. Multiparty grammars may also be used to describe communication among several people (by way of computers or in normal dialogue), network protocols among several machines, or complex interactions involving several people and machines. Visual features such as underlining, reversal, blinking, and color, window declarations, and dynamic operations dependent on cursor movement are also covered.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1982Multiparty,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Multiparty Grammars and Related Features for Defining Interactive Systems},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {148--154},
  doi = {10.1109/TSMC.1982.4308798}
}
Ben and Shneiderman (1981), "A note on human factors issues of natural language interaction with database systems", Information Systems, Vol 6(2), pp. 125-129.
Abstract: Efforts at constructing natural language computer systems have turned to implementing database query facilities. If the application domain is limited there is renewed hope for the success of natural language interfaces. This paper reviews arguments for and against such facilities, stresses research in human semantic knowledge, and emphasizes controlled psychologically oriented experimentation. The results of recent experiments are reported.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1981note,
  author = {Ben and Shneiderman},
  title = {A note on human factors issues of natural language interaction with database systems},
  journal = {Information Systems},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {6},
  number = {2},
  pages = {125--129},
  doi = {10.1016/0306-4379(81)90034-X}
}
Shneiderman B (1980), "Hardware options, evaluation metrics, and a design sequence for interactive information systems", Information and Management, Vol 3(1), pp. 3-18.
Abstract: Interactive information systems must satisfy a wide variety of users, serve a broad range of tasks, and be suited to diverse hardware environments. This paper concentrates on three aspects of interactive information systems design: hardware options, evaluation metrics, and a possible design sequence. Rigorous pilot studies are emphasized, and supporting experimental evidence is offered.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1980Hardware,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Hardware options, evaluation metrics, and a design sequence for interactive information systems},
  journal = {Information and Management},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--18},
  doi = {10.1016/0378-7206(80)90026-9}
}
Persio TD, Isbister D and Shneiderman B (1980), "An experiment using memorization/reconstruction as a measure of programmer ability", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol 13(3), pp. 339-354.
Abstract: Measuring the abilities of programmers in a classroom or organizational setting is not a trivial task. Current approaches are not always accurate or reliable. This paper describes an experiment which provides evidence that performance on a memorization/recon- struction test can be used as a measure or predictor of programmer ability. The contribution of indentation in program comprehension is also examined.
BibTeX:
@article{Persio1980experiment,
  author = {Tom Di Persio and Dan Isbister and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {An experiment using memorization/reconstruction as a measure of programmer ability},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {13},
  number = {3},
  pages = {339--354},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(80)80047-2}
}
Shneiderman B (1979), "Human Factors Experiments in Designing Interactive Systems", Computer, IEEE, Dec., 1979, Vol 12(12), pp. 9-19. Reprinted in Larson, J. A. (Editor), Tutorial: End User Facilities in the 1980s, IEEE Computer Society Press (1982), 16-26.
Abstract: Successful industrial design gracefully unites esthetics and function at minimum cost. However, designers face special problems when they apply their skills to interactive computer systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1979Human,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Human Factors Experiments in Designing Interactive Systems},
  journal = {Computer, IEEE}
  year = {1979},
  volume = {12},
  number = {12},
  pages = {9--19},
  doi = {10.1109/MC.1979.1658571}
}
Shneiderman B and Mayer R (1979), "Syntactic/semantic interactions in programmer behavior: A model and experimental results", International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, June, 1979, Vol 8(3), pp. 219-238. Reprinted in Human Factors in Software Development, Bill Curtis, Editor, IEEE EHO 185-9, (1981).
Abstract: This paper presents a cognitive framework for describing behaviors involved in program composition, comprehension, debugging, modification, and the acquisition of new programming concepts, skills, and knowledge. An information processing model is presented which includes a long-term store of semantic and syntactic knowledge, and a working memory in which problem solutions are constructed. New experimental evidence is presented to support the model of syntactic/semantic interaction.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1979Syntactic/semantic,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Mayer, Richard},
  title = {Syntactic/semantic interactions in programmer behavior: A model and experimental results},
  journal = {International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences},
  publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  pages = {219--238},
  note = {10.1007/BF00977789},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00977789}
}
Shneiderman B (1978), "Information policy issues: selecting a policy framework and defining the schema horizon", Information and Management, Vol 1(4), pp. 207-218. Reprinted in Best Computer Science Papers of 1980, Auerbach Publishers.
Abstract: Technical advances in database management systems are rebalancing organizational structures as management seeks to accommodate these powerful new tools. Managers must participate in establishing a framework for policy decisions and in setting goals for database usage. First, responsibility and authority must be delegated to management and not technical personnel. Second, the bounds of the application, called the schema horizon, should be carefully considered. This paper covers ten information policy issues within these two caregories and attempts to clarify management tasks.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1978Information,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Information policy issues: selecting a policy framework and defining the schema horizon},
  journal = {Information and Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {1},
  number = {4},
  pages = {207--218},
  doi = {10.1016/0378-7206(78)90027-7}
}
Brosey M and Shneiderman B (1978), "Two experimental comparisons of relational and hierarchical database models", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies,Nov., 1978, Vol 10(6), pp. 625-637.
Abstract: The data model is a central feature which characterizes and distinguishes database management systems. This paper presents two experimental comparative studies of two prominent data models; the relational and hierarchical models. Comprehension, problem solving situation and memorization tasks were performed by undergraduate subjects. Significant effects were found for the data model, presentation order, subject background and tasks.
BibTeX:
@article{Brosey1978Two,
  author = {Margaret Brosey and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Two experimental comparisons of relational and hierarchical database models},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {625--637},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(78)80024-8}
}
Shneiderman B (1978), "Improving the human factors aspect of database interactions", ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Dec., 1978, Vol 3(4), pp. 417-439. Reprinted in Database Management in the 1980's, J. Larson and H. A. Freeman, Editors, IEEE EHO 181-8 (1981).
Abstract: The widespread dissemination of computer and information systems to nontechnically trained individuals requires a new approach to the design and development of database interfaces. This paper provides the motivational background for controlled psychological experimentation in exploring the person/machine interface. Frameworks for the reductionist approach are given, research methods discussed, research issues presented, and a small experiment is offered as an example of what can be accomplished. This experiment is a comparison of natural and artificial language query facilities. Although subjects posed approximately equal numbers of valid queries with either facility, natural language users made significantly more invalid queries which could not be answered from the database that was described.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1978Improving,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Improving the human factors aspect of database interactions},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Database Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {417--439},
  doi = {10.1145/320289.320295}
}
Shneiderman B (1978), "Jump searching: a fast sequential search technique", Communication of the ACM, Oct., 1978, Vol 21(10), pp. 831-834.
Abstract: When sequential file structures must be used and binary searching is not feasible, jump searching becomes an appealing alternative. This paper explores variants of the classic jump searching scheme where the optimum jump size is the square root of the number of records. Multiple level and variable size jump strategies are explored, appropriate applications are discussed and performance is evaluated.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1978Jump,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Jump searching: a fast sequential search technique},
  journal = {Communication of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {21},
  number = {10},
  pages = {831--834},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/359619.359623},
  doi = {10.1145/359619.359623}
}
Shneiderman B (1977), "Measuring computer program quality and comprehension", International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol 9(4), pp. 465-478.
Abstract: Judging the relative quality of computer programs and a programmer's comprehension of a given program has proven to be a difficult task. Ability to debug, modify, hand simulate execution or respond to questions about the program all have their weaknesses as comprehension metrics. This paper offers experimental evidence which supports the use of memorization/recall tasks as a further basis for judging program quality and programmer comprehension. A syntactic/semantic model of programmer behavior is presented to provide a basis for this hypothesis.
BibTeX:
@article{B.1977Measuring,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Measuring computer program quality and comprehension},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {465--478},
  doi = {10.1016/S0020-7373(77)80014-X}
}
Shneiderman B (1977), "Reduced combined indexes for efficient multiple attribute retrieval", Information Systems, Vol 2(4), pp. 149-154.
Abstract: Combined indexes were proposed by Lum[4] as an alternative to the traditional approach of single attribute indexes. The combined index approach is appealing for queries requiring conjunctions of attribute values since it eliminates the time consuming intersections. The penalty of wasted auxiliary storage space in the combined index approach can be minimized by adopting the Reduced Combined Index technique proposed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1977Reduced,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Reduced combined indexes for efficient multiple attribute retrieval},
  journal = {Information Systems},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {149--154},
  doi = {10.1016/0306-4379(77)90003-5}
}
Shneiderman B (1977), "Teaching programming: A spiral approach to syntax and semantics", Computers and Education. Vol 1(4), pp. 193-197.
Abstract: Coupling the recently proposed syntactic/semantic model of programmer behavior [1] with classic educational psychological theories yields new insights to teaching programming to novices. These new insights should make programming education more natural to students. alleviate “computer shock” (the analog of “math anxiety” [2]) and promote the development of widespread “computer literacy”.
The spiral approach is the parallel acquisition of syntactic and semantic knowledge in a sequence which provokes student interest by using meaningful examples, builds on previous knowledge, is in harmony with the student's cognitive skills, provides reinforcement of recently acquired material and develops confidence through successful accomplishment of increasingly difficult tasks. The relationship of structured programming and flowcharts to the spiral approach is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Ben1977Teaching,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Teaching programming: A spiral approach to syntax and semantics},
  journal = {Computers and Education},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {1},
  number = {4},
  pages = {193--197},
  doi = {10.1016/0360-1315(77)90008-2}
}
Shneiderman B, Mayer R, McKay D and Heller P (1977), "Experimental investigations of the utility of detailed flowcharts in programming", Communications of the ACM, June, 1977, Vol 20(6), pp. 373-381. Reprinted in Human Factors in Software Development, Bill Curtis, Editor, IEEE EHO 185-9 (1981).
Abstract: This paper describes previous research on flowcharts and a series of controlled experiments to test the utility of detailed flowcharts as an aid to program composition, comprehension, debugging, and modification. No statistically significant difference between flowchart and nonflowchart groups has been shown, thereby calling into question the utility of detailed flowcharting. A program of further research is suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1977Experimental,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Mayer, Richard and McKay, Don and Heller, Peter},
  title = {Experimental investigations of the utility of detailed flowcharts in programming},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {20},
  number = {6},
  pages = {373--381},
  doi = {10.1145/359605.359610}
}
Shneidebman B (1976), "A review of design techniques for programs and data", Software: Practice and Experience, Vol 6(4), pp. 555-567.
Abstract: The proliferation of papers on programming methodology focus on the program development process but only hint at the form of the final program. This paper distinguishes between the development process and the program product and presents a catalogue of possible program organizations and data structures with examples drawn from the published literature. The methods for sharing data among modules and a classification scheme for programs and data structures is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneidebman1976review,
  author = {Shneidebman, Ben},
  title = {A review of design techniques for programs and data},
  journal = {Software: Practice and Experience},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {6},
  number = {4},
  pages = {555--567},
  doi = {10.1002/spe.4380060410}
}
Shneiderman B (1976), "Batched searching of sequential and tree structured files", ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Sep., 1976, Vol 1(3), pp. 268-275.
Abstract: The technique of batching searches has been ignored in the context of disk based online data retrieval systems. This paper suggests that batching be reconsidered for such systems since the potential reduction in processor demand may actually reduce response time. An analysis with sample numerical results and algorithms is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1976Batched,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Batched searching of sequential and tree structured files},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Database Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {268--275},
  doi = {10.1145/320473.320487}
}
Shneiderman B (1976), "Exploratory experiments in programmer behavior", International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, Vol 5(2), pp. 123-143.
Abstract: The techniques of cognitive psychological experimentation can help resolve specific issues in programming and explore the broader issues of programmer behavior. This paper describes the methodological questions of such experimentation and presents two exploratory experiments: a memorization task and a comparison of the arithmetic and logical IF statements infortran.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1976Exploratory,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Exploratory experiments in programmer behavior},
  journal = {International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences},
  publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {5},
  number = {2},
  pages = {123--143},
  note = {10.1007/BF00975629},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00975629}
}
Shneiderman B and Shapiro SC (1976), "Toward a theory of encoded data structures and data translation", International Journal of Parallel Programming, Vol 5(1), pp. 33-43.
Abstract: Several models of data base systems have distinguished levels of abstraction ranging from the high-level entity set model down to the low-level physical device level. This paper presents a model for describing data encodings, an intermediate level which focuses on the relationship among data items as demonstrated by contiguity or by pointer connections. Multiple data encodings for a file are shown and transformation functions that describe the translation between data encodings are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1976Toward,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Shapiro, Stuart C.},
  title = {Toward a theory of encoded data structures and data translation},
  journal = {International Journal of Parallel Programming},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {33--43},
  note = {10.1007/BF00991070},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00991070}
}
Shneiderman B (1975), "Experimental testing in programming languages, stylistic considerations and design techniques", In Proceedings of the National Computer Conference and Exposition, pp. 653-656.
Abstract: In the early stages of the development of high-level languages, radically differing alternatives were often promulgated. Each language had a dedicated corps of adherents who advocated the primacy of their facility. Turbulent debates among the protagonists were a common affair at conferences and in the trade journals. Now as the field matures, the vehement discussions have subsided and there is a widespread recognition of the usefulness of a variety of languages. Even the proponents of a single universal language have softened their tone and have accepted the multiple language condition.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1975Experimental,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Experimental testing in programming languages, stylistic considerations and design techniques},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the National Computer Conference and Exposition},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1975},
  pages = {653--656},
  doi = {10.1145/1499949.1500087}
}
Shneiderman B (1974), "A model for optimizing indexed file structures", International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, Vol 3(1), pp. 91-101.
Abstract: Multilevel indexes have long been used for accessing records in sorted files. Given the access cost at each level, the total cost of retrieving a record from the file can be substantially reduced by selecting the proper size of the index at each level. Organizations involving a variable number of levels are covered and binary searching is compared to sequential searching.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1974model,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A model for optimizing indexed file structures},
  journal = {International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences},
  publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {91--101},
  note = {10.1007/BF01355589},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01355589}
}
Shneiderman B and Scheuermann P (1974), "Structured data structures", Communications of the ACM, Oct., 1974, Vol 17(10), pp. 566-574.
Abstract: Programming systems which permit arbitrary linked list structures enable the user to create complicated structures without sufficient protection. Deletions can result in unreachable data elements, and there is no guarantee that additions will be performed properly. To remedy this situation, this paper proposes a Data Structure Description and Manipulation Language which provides for the creation of a restricted class of data structures but ensures the correctness of the program. This is accomplished by an explicit structure declaration facility, a restriction on the permissible operations, and execution-time checks.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1974Structured,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Scheuermann, Peter},
  title = {Structured data structures},
  journal = {Commun. ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {17},
  number = {10},
  pages = {566--574},
  doi = {10.1145/355620.361170}
}
Shneiderman B (1973), "Optimum data base reorganization points", Communications of the ACM, June, 1973, Vol 16(6), pp. 362-365.
Abstract: In certain data base organization schemes the cost per access may increase due to structural inefficiencies caused by update. By reorganizing the data base the cost per access may be reduced. However, the high cost of a reorganization prohibits frequent reorganizations. This paper examines strategies for selecting the optimum reorganization points.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1973Optimum,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Optimum data base reorganization points},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {16},
  number = {6},
  pages = {362--365},
  doi = {10.1145/362248.362267}
}
Shneiderman B (1973), "Polynomial search", Software: Practice and Experience, Vol 3(1), pp. 5-8.
Abstract: By plotting the key value against the record position in a sorted file and then fitting a least squares polynomial through the points, a fast retrieval technique is determined. The target key of a search is inserted in the polynomial and the first access from the file is made on the basis of the evaluation. Since the maximum deviation can be determined, an efficient local search can be made. If the maximum deviation is less than half the size of the file, polynomial searching is more efficient than binary searching. While this method can be applied in many cases, it is most useful in disk oriented file systems where the goal is to minimize the number of accesses even at the expense of some additional calculation.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1973Polynomial,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Polynomial search},
  journal = {Software: Practice and Experience},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--8},
  doi = {10.1002/spe.4380030103}
}
Articles in Refereed Conferences
Du, F., Plaisant, C., Spring, N., and Shneiderman, B., Finding similar people to guide life choices: Challenge, design, and evaluation, Proc. ACM CHI 2017, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York (May 2017, to appear).
Franklin L, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2013), "An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication", Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013), November 2013, pp. 456-465.
Abstract: Risk communication is a major challenge in productive patient-physician communication. Patient decision making responsibilities coms with an implicit assumption that patients are sufficiently educated and confident in their abilities to make decisions about their care based on evidence based treatment recommendations. Attempts to improve health literacy in patients by way of graphical decision aids have met with success. Such decision aids typically have been designed for a general population and evaluated based on whether or not users of the decision aid can accurately report the data points in isolation. To classify decision aids, we present an information-centric framework for assessing the content delivered to patients. We provide examples of our framework from a literature survey and suggest ways improvements can be made by considering all dimensions of our framework.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Franklin2013Information,
  author = {Franklin, Lyndsey and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication},
  journal = {Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013)},
  year = {2013},
  page = {456--465}
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551350}
}
Mauriello, M. L., Shneiderman, B., Du, F., Malik, S., and Plaisant, C., Simplifying overviews of temporal event sequences, Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’16, ACM, New York (2016), 2217-2224.
Abstract: Beginning the analysis of new data is often difficult as modern datasets can be overwhelmingly large. With visual analytics in particular, displays of large datasets quickly become crowded and unclear. Through observing the practices of analysts working with the event sequence visualization tool EventFlow, we identified three techniques to reduce initial visual complexity by reducing the number of event categories resulting in a simplified overview. For novice users, we suggest an initial pair of event categories to display. For advanced users, we provide six ranking metrics and display all pairs in a ranked list. Finally, we present the Event Category Matrix (ECM), which simultaneously displays overviews of every event category pair. In this work, we report on the development of these techniques through two formative usability studies and the improvements made as a result. The goal of our work is to investigate strategies that help users overcome the challenges associated with initial visual complexity and to motivate the use of simplified overviews in temporal event sequence analysis.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mauriello:2016:SOT:2851581.2892440,
 author = {Mauriello, Matthew Louis and Shneiderman, Ben and Du, Fan and Malik, Sana and Plaisant, Catherine},
 title = {Simplifying Overviews of Temporal Event Sequences},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
 series = {CHI EA '16},
 year = {2016},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-4082-3},
 location = {Santa Clara, California, USA},
 pages = {2217--2224},
 numpages = {8},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2851581.2892440},
 doi = {10.1145/2851581.2892440},
 acmid = {2892440},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {information visualization, temporal event sequences},
} 

Franklin L, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2013), "An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication", Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013), November 2013, pp. 456-465.
Abstract: Finding the differences and similarities between two datasets is a common analytics task. With temporal event sequence data, this task is complex because of the many ways single events and event sequences can differ between the two datasets (or cohorts) of records: the structure of the event sequences (e.g., event order, co-occurring events, or event frequencies), the attributes of events and records (e.g., patient gender), or metrics about the timestamps themselves (e.g., event duration). In exploratory analyses, running statistical tests to cover all cases is time-consuming and determining which results are significant becomes cumbersome. Current analytics tools for comparing groups of event sequences emphasize a purely statistical or purely visual approach for comparison. This paper presents a taxonomy of metrics for comparing cohorts of temporal event sequences, showing that the problem-space is bounded. We also present a visual analytics tool, CoCo (for "Cohort Comparison"), which implements balanced integration of automated statistics with an intelligent user interface to guide users to significant, distinguishing features between the cohorts. Lastly, we describe two early case studies: the first with a research team studying medical team performance in the emergency department and the second with pharmacy researchers.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Malik:2015:CCE:2678025.2701407,
 author = {Malik, Sana and Du, Fan and Monroe, Megan and Onukwugha, Eberechukwu and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
 title = {Cohort Comparison of Event Sequences with Balanced Integration of Visual Analytics and Statistics},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces},
 series = {IUI '15},
 year = {2015},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-3306-1},
 location = {Atlanta, Georgia, USA},
 pages = {38--49},
 numpages = {12},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2678025.2701407},
 doi = {10.1145/2678025.2701407},
 acmid = {2701407},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {cohort comparison, temporal data, visual analytics},
} 
Sopan, A., Plaisant, C., Powsner, S., Shneiderman, B., Reducing wrong patient selection errors: Exploring the design space of user interface techniques, Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2014) (November 2014), 1056-1065.
Abstract: Wrong patient selection errors are a major issue for patient safety; from ordering medication to performing surgery, the stakes are high. Widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems makes patient selection using a computer screen a frequent task for clinicians. Careful design of the user interface can help mitigate the problem by helping providers recall their patients' identities, accurately select their names, and spot errors before orders are submitted. We propose a catalog of twenty seven distinct user interface techniques, organized according to a task analysis. An associated video demonstrates eighteen of those techniques. EHR designers who consider a wider range of human-computer interaction techniques could reduce selection errors, but verification of efficacy is still needed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DBLP:conf/amia/SopanPPS14,
  author    = {Awalin Sopan and
               Catherine Plaisant and
               Seth Powsner and
               Ben Shneiderman},
  title     = {Reducing Wrong Patient Selection Errors: Exploring the Design Space
               of User Interface Techniques},
  booktitle = {{AMIA} 2014, American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium,
               Washington, DC, USA, November 15-19, 2014},
  year      = {2014},
  crossref  = {DBLP:conf/amia/2014},
  url       = {http://knowledge.amia.org/56638-amia-1.1540970/t-004-1.1544972/f-004-1.1544973/a-206-1.1545055/a-207-1.1545052},
  timestamp = {Wed, 28 Sep 2016 16:58:06 +0200},
  biburl    = {http://dblp2.uni-trier.de/rec/bib/conf/amia/SopanPPS14},
  bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography, http://dblp.org}
}
Malik, S., Smith, A., Hawes, T., Papadatos, P., Li, J., Dunne, C., and Shneiderman, B., TopicFlow: Visualizing topic alignment of Twitter data over time, Proc. IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (2013), 720-726.
Abstract: Social media, particularly Twitter, provides an abundance of real-time data. To account for this volume, researchers often use automated analysis and visualization techniques to produce a high-level overview of a Twitter stream. Existing techniques for understanding Twitter data make use of hashtags or word-pairs and may ignore the complex trends in discussions over time. To remedy this, we present an application of statistical topic modeling and alignment (binned topic models) to group related tweets into automatically generated topics and TopicFlow, an interactive tool to visualize the evolution of these topics. The effectiveness of this visualization for reasoning about large data sets is demonstrated by a usability study with 18 participants.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Malik:2013:TVT:2492517.2492639,
 author = {Malik, Sana and Smith, Alison and Hawes, Timothy and Papadatos, Panagis and Li, Jianyu and Dunne, Cody and Shneiderman, Ben},
 title = {TopicFlow: Visualizing Topic Alignment of Twitter Data over Time},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining},
 series = {ASONAM '13},
 year = {2013},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-2240-9},
 location = {Niagara, Ontario, Canada},
 pages = {720--726},
 numpages = {7},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2492517.2492639},
 doi = {10.1145/2492517.2492639},
 acmid = {2492639},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
} 
Franklin L, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2013), "An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication", Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013), November 2013, pp. 456-465.
Abstract: Risk communication is a major challenge in productive patient-physician communication. Patient decision making responsibilities coms with an implicit assumption that patients are sufficiently educated and confident in their abilities to make decisions about their care based on evidence based treatment recommendations. Attempts to improve health literacy in patients by way of graphical decision aids have met with success. Such decision aids typically have been designed for a general population and evaluated based on whether or not users of the decision aid can accurately report the data points in isolation. To classify decision aids, we present an information-centric framework for assessing the content delivered to patients. We provide examples of our framework from a literature survey and suggest ways improvements can be made by considering all dimensions of our framework.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Franklin2013Information,
  author = {Franklin, Lyndsey and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication},
  journal = {Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013)},
  year = {2013},
  page = {456--465}
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551350}
}
Guerra-Gómez, J. A., Pack, M. L., Plaisant, C., and Shneiderman, B. (2013), "Visualizing changes over time in datasets using dynamic hierarchies: TreeVersity2 and the StemView", Proc. IEEE Information Visualization Conference and IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Dec. 2013, Vol 19(20), pp. 2566-2575.
Abstract: To analyze datasets like the US Federal Budget or the number of students in a University it is common to look for changes over time. This task can be easier and more fruitful if the analysis is performed by grouping by attributes, such as by Agencies, Bureaus and Accounts for the Budget or by Ethnicity, Gender and Major in a University. We present TreeVersity2, a web based interactive data visualization tool that allows users to analyze changes in datasets by creating dynamic hierarchies based on the data attributes. TreeVersity2 introduces a novel space filling visualization designed to represent changes in trees, that showcase the change on all tree levels, not only the leaves. With this visualization users can explore absolute and relative changes, created and removed nodes, and each node’s actual values, while maintaining the context. Moreover, TreeVersity2 includes time-based visualizations that provide the context of the each node’s change over time. Finally, TreeVersity2 provides a reporting tool that lists outliers in textual form, which can help users identify what has changed in the data without having to manually setup the filters. We validated TreeVersity2 with 12 case studies with organizations as diverse as the National Cancer Institute, Federal Drug Administration, Department of Transportation, Office of the Bursar of the University of Maryland, and even eBay. Our case studies demonstrated that TreeVersity2 is flexible enough to be used in different domains to reveal useful insights for the data owners. A demo of TreeVersity2 can be seen at https://treeversity.cattlab.umd.edu..
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Guerra-Gómez2013Visualizing,
  author = {Guerra-Gómez, John Alexis and Pack, Michael L. and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visualizing changes over time in datasets using dynamic hierarchies: TreeVarsity2 and the StemView},
  journal = {Proc. IEEE Information Visualization Conference},
  year = {2013},
  vol = {19},
  number = {20},
  pages = {2566--2575},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6634101}
}
Monroe, M., Lan, R., Lee, H., Plaisant, C., and Shneiderman, B. (2013), "Temporal event sequence simplification", Proc. IEEE Visual Analytics Science & Technology Conference and IEEE Trans on Visualization and Computer Graphics, HONORABLE MENTION, Dec., 2013, Vol 19(2), pp. 2227-2236.
Abstract: Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have emerged as a cost-effective data source for conducting medical research. The difficulty in using EHRs for research purposes, however, is that both patient selection and record analysis must be conducted across very large, and typically very noisy datasets. Our previous work introduced EventFlow, a visualization tool that transforms an entire dataset of temporal event records into an aggregated display, allowing researchers to analyze population-level patterns and trends. As datasets become larger and more varied, however, it becomes increasingly difficult to provide a succinct, summarizing display. This paper presents a series of user-driven data simplifications that allow researchers to pare event records down to their core elements. Furthermore, we present a novel metric for measuring visual complexity, and a language for codifying disjoint strategies into an overarching simplification framework. These simplifications were used by real-world researchers to gain new and valuable insights from initially overwhelming datasets.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monroe2013Temporal,
  author = {Monroe, Megan and Lan, Rongjian and Lee, Hanseung and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Temporal event sequence simplification},
  journal = {Proc. IEEE Visual Analytics Science & Technology Conference and IEEE Trans on Visualization and Computer Graphics, HONORABLE MENTION},
  year = {2013},
  vol = {19},
  number = {2},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abstractAuthors.jsp?arnumber=6634100}
}
Monroe M, Lan R, Morales J, Shneiderman B, Plaisant C and Millstein J (2013), "The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries: A Graphical Language Approach", Proc. ACM CHI 2013, April, 2013, pp. 2349-2358.
Abstract: In our burgeoning world of ubiquitous sensors and affordable data storage, records of timestamped events are being produced across nearly every domain of personal and professional computing. This data ranges from government-funded medical databases, to the meticulously tabulated comings and goings of obsessive self-trackers. Across all domains, however, is the need to search these records for meaningful patterns of events. This paper reports on a two-part user study, as well as a series of early tests and interviews with clinical researchers, that informed the development of two temporal query interfaces: a basic, menu-based interface and an advanced, graphic-based interface. While the scope of temporal query is very broad, this work focuses on two particularly complex and critical facets of temporal event sequences: intervals (events with both a start time and an end time), and the absence of an event. We describe how uses encounter a common set of difficulties when expressing such queries, and propose solutions to help overcome them. Finally, we report on 2 case studies with epidemiologists at the US Army Pharmacovigilance Center, illustrating how both query interfaces were used to study patterns of drug use.
BibTeX:
@conference{Monroe2013Challenges,
  author = {Monroe, Megan and Lan, Rongjian and Morales, Juan and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Millstein, Jeff},
  title = {The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries: A Graphical Language Approach},
  journal = {CHI '13: Proc. 2013 international conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {2349--2358},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2481325}
}
Plaisant, C., Chao, T., Wu, J., Hettinger, A. Z., Herskovic, J., Johnson, T., Bernstam, E., Markowitz, E., Powsner, E., Shneiderman, B., (2013), "Twinlist: Novel User Interface Designs for Medication Reconciliation", Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013), Nov., 2013, pp. 1150-1159.
Abstract: Medication reconciliation is an important and complex task for which careful user interface design has the potential to help reduce errors and improve quality of care. In this paper we focus on the hospital discharge scenario and first describe a novel interface called Twinlist. Twinlist illustrates the novel use of spatial layout combined with multi-step animation, to help medical providers see what is different and what is similar between the lists (e.g. intake list and hospital list), and rapidly choose the drugs they want to include in the reconciled list. We then describe a series of variant designs and discuss their comparative advantages and disadvantages. Finally we report on a pilot study that suggests that animation might help users learn new spatial layouts such as the one used in Twinlist.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant2013Twinlist,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Chao, Tiffany and Wu, Johnny and Hettinger, A. Zach and Herskovic, Jorge and Johnson, Todd and Bernstam, Elmer and Markowitz, Eliz and Powsner, Seth and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Twinlist: Novel User Interface Designs for Medication Reconciliation},
  journal = {Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013)},
  year = {2013},
  pages ={1150--1159},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900136/}
}
Shneiderman B and Dunne C (2013), "Interactive network exploration to derive insights: filtering, clustering, grouping, and simplification", In Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Graph Drawing, pp. 2-18.
Abstract: The growing importance of network analysis has increased attention on interactive exploration to derive insights and support personal, business, legal, scientific, or national security decisions. Since networks are often complex and cluttered, strategies for effective filtering, clustering, grouping, and simplification are helpful in finding key nodes and links, surprising clusters, important groups, or meaningful patterns. We describe readability metrics and strategies that have been implemented in NodeXL, our free and open source network analysis tool, and show examples from our research. While filtering, clustering, and grouping have been used in many tools, we present several advances on these techniques. We also discuss our recent work on motif simplification, in which common patterns are replaced with compact and meaningful glyphs, thereby improving readability.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2013Interactive,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Dunne, Cody},
  title = {Interactive network exploration to derive insights: filtering, clustering, grouping, and simplification},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Graph Drawing},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {2--18},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36763-2_2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-36763-2_2}
}
Dunne C and Shneiderman B (2013), "Motif Simplification: Improving network visualization readability with fan, connector, and clique glyphs", In CHI '13: Proc. 2013 international conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Vol., pp., April 2013.
Abstract: Analyzing networks involves understanding the complex relationships between entities, as well as any attributes they may have. The widely used node-link diagrams excel at this task, but many are difficult to extract meaning from because of the inherent complexity of the relationships and limited screen space. To help address this problem we introduce a technique called motif simplification, in which common patterns of nodes and links are replaced with compact and meaningful glyphs. Well-designed glyphs have several benefits: they (1) require less screen space and layout effort, (2) are easier to understand in the context of the network, (3) can reveal otherwise hidden relationships, and (4) preserve as much underlying information as possible. We tackle three frequently occurring and high-payoff motifs: fans of nodes with a single neighbor, connectors that link a set of anchor nodes, and cliques of completely connected nodes. We contribute design guidelines for motif glyphs; example glyphs for the fan, connector, and clique motifs; algorithms for detecting these motifs; a free and open source reference implementation; and results from a controlled study of 36 participants that demonstrates the effectiveness of motif simplification.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{Dunne2013Motif,
  author = {Dunne, Cody and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Motif Simplification: Improving network visualization readability
	with fan, connector, and clique glyphs},
  booktitle = {CHI '13: Proc. 2013 international conference on Human Factors in
	Computing Systems},
  year = {2013},
  month = {April},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/localphp/hcil/tech-reports-search.php?number=2012-29}
}
Monroe M, Lan R, Morales J, Shneiderman B, Plaisant C and Millstein J (2013), "The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries: A Graphical Language Approach", In CHI '13: Proc. 2013 international conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vol., pp., April 2013.
Abstract: In our burgeoning world of ubiquitous sensors and affordable data storage, records of timestamped events are being produced across nearly every domain of personal and professional computing. This data ranges from government-funded medical databases, to the meticulously tabulated comings and goings of obsessive self-trackers. Across all domains, however, is the need to search these records for meaningful patterns of events. This paper reports on a two-part user study, as well as a series of early tests and interviews with clinical researchers, that informed the development of two temporal query interfaces: a basic, menu-based interface and an advanced, graphic-based interface. While the scope of temporal query is very broad, this work focuses on two particularly complex and critical facets of temporal event sequences: intervals (events with both a start time and an end time), and the absence of an event. We describe how uses encounter a common set of difficulties when expressing such queries, and propose solutions to help overcome them. Finally, we report on 2 case studies with epidemiologists at the US Army Pharmacovigilance Center, illustrating how both query interfaces were used to study patterns of drug use.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{Monroe2013Challenges,
  author = {Monroe, Megan and Lan, Rongjian and Morales, Juan and Shneiderman,
	Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Millstein, Jeff},
  title = {The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries:
	A Graphical Language Approach},
  booktitle = {CHI '13: Proc. 2013 international conference on Human Factors in
	Computing Systems},
  year = {2013},
  month = {April},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/localphp/hcil/tech-reports-search.php?number=2012-30}
}
Shneiderman B and Dunne C (2013), "Interactive network exploration to derive insights: filtering, clustering, grouping, and simplification", In Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Graph Drawing, Vol., pp. 2-18, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2013.
Abstract: The growing importance of network analysis has increased attention on interactive exploration to derive insights and support personal, business, legal, scientific, or national security decisions. Since networks are often complex and cluttered, strategies for effective filtering, clustering, grouping, and simplification are helpful in finding key nodes and links, surprising clusters, important groups, or meaningful patterns. We describe readability metrics and strategies that have been implemented in NodeXL, our free and open source network analysis tool, and show examples from our research. While filtering, clustering, and grouping have been used in many tools, we present several advances on these techniques. We also discuss our recent work on motif simplification, in which common patterns are replaced with compact and meaningful glyphs, thereby improving readability.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Shneiderman2013Interactive,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Dunne, Cody},
  title = {Interactive network exploration to derive insights: filtering, clustering,
	grouping, and simplification},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Graph Drawing},
  year = {2013},
  series = {GD'12},
  pages = {2--18},
  address = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  acmid = {2449766},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-36763-2_2},
  isbn = {978-3-642-36762-5},
  keywords = {attribute grouping, dynamic filters, link clustering, motif simplification,
	network visualization, readability metrics, visual analytics},
  location = {Redmond, WA},
  numpages = {17},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36763-2_2}
}
Ahn J, Hammock J, Parr C, Preece J, Shneiderman B, Schulz K, Hansen D, Rotman D and He Y (2012), "Visually exploring social participation in Encyclopedia of Life", In ASE International Conference on Social Informatics. Vol., pp. 149-156., Dec. 2012
Abstract: Social network visualization is useful for under-standing the complex structure of collaborative efforts such as citizen science projects. It has been widely accepted by social network analysts for exploring and analyzing networks by visually showing their members, the relationships among them, and their behaviors and attributes. The strength of social network visualization can be increased even further, by incorporating the time dimension of evolving networks. We analyzed the conversa- tion network of a collaborative citizen science web platform called the Encyclopedia of Life using dynamic network visualization methods. This paper shows how the temporal visualization was applied to the social collaboration analysis of EOL and presents the findings. We found that some EOL web site features increased the interactive as well as individual member activities. We also found evidence that EOL curator activities encouraged the activities of other members.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{Ahn2012Visually,
  author = {Ahn, Jae-wook and Hammock, Jennifer and Parr, Cynthia and Preece,
	Jennifer and Shneiderman, Ben and Schulz, Katja and Hansen, Derek
	and Rotman, Dana and He, Yurong},
  title = {Visually exploring social participation in Encyclopedia of Life},
  booktitle = {ASE International Conference on Social Informatics},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {149-156},
  month = {Dec.},
  url = {http://biotrackers.net/docs/Ahn_SocialParticipationInEOL.pdf}
}
Derek L., Hansen and Dana, Rotman and Elizabeth, Bonsignore and Nataša, Mili?-frayling and Eduarda, Mendes Rodrigues and Marc, Smith and Ben, Shneiderman and Tony, Capone (2012), "Do You Know the Way to SNA? A process model for analyzing a visualizing social media network data", In ASE International Conference on Social Informatics, Vol., pp. 304-313., Dec. 2012
Abstract: Traces of activity left by social media users can shed light on individual behavior, social relationships, and community efficacy. Tools and processes to analyze social traces are essential for enabling practitioners to study and nurture meaningful and sustainable social interaction. Yet such tools and processes remain in their infancy. We conducted a study of 15 graduate students who were learning to apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) to data from online communities. Based on close observations of their emergent practices, we derived the Network Analysis and Visualization (NAV) process model and identified stages where intervention from peers, experts, and an SNA tool were most useful. We show how the NAV model informs the design of SNA tools and services, education practices, and support for social media practitioners.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{DerekL.2012Do,
  author = {Derek L., Hansen and Dana, Rotman and Elizabeth, Bonsignore and Nataša,
	Milic-Frayling and Eduarda, Mendes Rodrigues and Marc, Smith and
	Ben, Shneiderman and Tony, Capone},
  title = {Do You Know the Way to SNA? A process model for analyzing a visualizing
	social media network data},
  booktitle = {ASE International Conference on Social Informatics},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {304-313},
  month = {Dec.},
  keywords = {Author Keywords: Social network analysis, visualization, social media,
	process model, NodeXL, online communities. ACM Classification Keywords:
	H5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): Miscellaneous.},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.148.3255}
}
Sopan A, Rey PJ, Butler B, and Shneiderman B (2012), "Monitoring scientific conference: Real-time visualization and retrospective analysis of the backchannel conversation", In ASE International Conference on Social Informatics, Vol., pp. 63-69., 2012
Abstract: Social-media-supported academic conferences are becoming increasingly global as people anywhere can participate actively through backchannel conversation. It can be challenging for the conference organizers to integrate the use of social media, to take advantage of the connections between backchannel and front stage, and to encourage the participants to be a part of the broader discussion occurring through social media. As academic conferences are different in nature, specialized tools and methods are needed to analyze the vast amount of digital data generated through the backchannel conversation, which can offer key insights on best practices. In this paper we present our two fold contribution to enable organizers to gain such insights. First, we introduce Conference Monitor (CM), a real time web-based tweet visualization dashboard to monitor the backchannel conversation during academic conferences. We demonstrate the features of CM, which are designed to help monitor academic conferences and its application during the conference Theorizing the Web 2012 (TtW12). Its real time visualizations helped identify the popular sessions, the active and important participants and trending topics during the conference. Second, we report on our retrospective analysis of the tweets about the TtW12 conference and the conference-related follower-networks of its participants. The 4828 tweets from 593 participants resulted in 8.14 tweets per participant. The 1591 new follower-relations created among the participants during the conference confirmed the overall high volume of new connections created during academic conferences. We also observed that on average a speaker got more new followers than a non-speaker. A few remote participants also gained comparatively large number of new followers due to the content of their tweets and their perceived importance to the conference followers. There was a positive correlation between the number of new followers of a participant and the number of people who mentioned him/her. The analysis of the tweets suggested that remote participants had a significant level of participation in the backchannel and live streaming helped them to be more engaged.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{Sopan2012Monitoring,
  author = {Sopan, Awalin and Rey, PJ and Butler, Brian and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Monitoring scientific conference: Real-time visualization and retrospective
	analysis of the backchannel conversation},
  booktitle = {ASE International Conference on Social Informatics},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {63-69},
  url = {http://hcil2.cs.umd.edu/trs/2012-17/2012-17.pdf}
}
Tao C, Wongsuphasawat K, Clark K, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Chute C (2012), "Towards event sequence representation, reasoning and visualization for EHR data", In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, Vol., pp. 801-806., NY, USA, 2012
Abstract: Efficient analysis of event sequences and the ability to answer time-related, clinically important questions can accelerate clinical research in several areas such as causality assessments, decision support systems, and retrospective studies. The Clinical Narrative Temporal Reasoning Ontology (CNTRO)-based system is designed for semantically representing, annotating, and inferring temporal relations and constraints for clinical events in Electronic Health Records (EHR) represented in both structured and unstructured ways. The LifeFlow system is designed to support an interactive exploration of event sequences using visualization techniques. The combination of the two systems will provide a comprehensive environment for users to visualize inferred temporal relationships from EHR data. This paper discusses our preliminary efforts on connecting the two systems and the benefits we envision from such an environment.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Tao2012Towards,
  author = {Tao, Cui and Wongsuphasawat, Krist and Clark, Kimberly and Plaisant,
	Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Chute, Christopher G.},
  title = {Towards event sequence representation, reasoning and visualization
	for EHR data},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics
	Symposium},
  year = {2012},
  series = {IHI '12},
  pages = {801--806},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  publisher = {ACM},
  acmid = {2110461},
  doi = {10.1145/2110363.2110461},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0781-9},
  keywords = {ehr, semantic web, temporal relation reasoning, time trend visualization},
  location = {Miami, Florida, USA},
  numpages = {6},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2110363.2110461}
}
Ahn J-w, Taieb-Maimon M, Sopan A, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2011), "Temporal Visualization of Social Network Dynamics: Prototypes for Nation of Neighbors", In Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction. Vol. 6589, pp. 309-316. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: Information visualization is a powerful tool for analyzing the dynamic nature of social communities. Using Nation of Neighbors community network as a testbed, we propose five principles of implementing temporal visualizations for social networks and present two research prototypes: NodeXL and TempoVis. Three different states are defined in order to visualize the temporal changes of social networks. We designed the prototypes to show the benefits of the proposed ideas by letting users interactively explore temporal changes of social networks.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Ahn2011Temporal,
  author = {Ahn, Jae-wook and Taieb-Maimon, Meirav and Sopan, Awalin and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Salerno, John and Yang, Shanchieh and Nau, Dana and Chai, Sun-Ki},
  title = {Temporal Visualization of Social Network Dynamics: Prototypes for Nation of Neighbors},
  booktitle = {Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6589},
  pages = {309-316},
  note = {10.1007/978-3-642-19656-0_43},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19656-0_43}
}
Gove R, Dunne C, Shneiderman B, Klavans J and Dorr B (2011), "Evaluating visual and statistical exploration of scientific literature networks", In IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing., Sept., 2011. , pp. 217 -224.
Abstract: Action Science Explorer (ASE) is a tool designed to support users in rapidly generating readily consumable summaries of academic literature. It uses citation network visualization, ranking and filtering papers by network statistics, and automatic clustering and summarization techniques. We describe how early formative evaluations of ASE led to a mature system evaluation, consisting of an in-depth empirical evaluation with four domain experts. The evaluation tasks were of two types: predefined tasks to test system performance in common scenarios, and user-defined tasks to test the system's usefulness for custom exploration goals. The primary contribution of this paper is a validation of the ASE design and recommendations to provide: easy-to-understand metrics for ranking and filtering documents, user control over which document sets to explore, and overviews of the document set in coordinated views along with details-on-demand of specific papers. We contribute a taxonomy of features for literature search and exploration tools and describe exploration goals identified by our participants.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gove2011Evaluating,
  author = {Gove, R. and Dunne, C. and Shneiderman, B. and Klavans, J. and Dorr, B.},
  title = {Evaluating visual and statistical exploration of scientific literature networks},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {217 -224},
  doi = {10.1109/VLHCC.2011.6070403}
}
Gove R, Gramsky N, Kirby R, Sefer E, Sopan A, Dunne C, Shneiderman B and Taieb-Maimon M (2011), "NetVisia: Heat Map and Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Social Network Statistics and Content", In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on and 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom)., Oct., 2011. , pp. 19 -26.
Abstract: Visualizations of static networks in the form of node-link diagrams have evolved rapidly, though researchers are still grappling with how best to show evolution of nodes over time in these diagrams. This paper introduces NetVisia, a social network visualization system designed to support users in exploring temporal evolution in networks by using heat maps to display node attribute changes over time. NetVisia's novel contributions to network visualizations are to (1) cluster nodes in the heat map by similar metric values instead of by topological similarity, and (2) align nodes in the heat map by events. We compare NetVisia to existing systems and describe a formative user evaluation of a NetVisia prototype with four participants that emphasized the need for tool tips and coordinated views. Despite the presence of some usability issues, in 30-40 minutes the user evaluation participants discovered new insights about the data set which had not been discovered using other systems. We discuss implemented improvements to NetVisia, and analyze a co-occurrence network of 228 business intelligence concepts and entities. This analysis confirms the utility of a clustered heat map to discover outlier nodes and time periods.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gove2011NetVisia:,
  author = {Gove, R. and Gramsky, N. and Kirby, R. and Sefer, E. and Sopan, A. and Dunne, C. and Shneiderman, B. and Taieb-Maimon, M.},
  title = {NetVisia: Heat Map and Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Social Network Statistics and Content},
  booktitle = {Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on and 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {19 -26},
  doi = {10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.216}
}
Hansen D, Smith M and Shneiderman B (2011), "EventGraphs: Charting Collections of Conference Connections", In 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences., Jan., 2011. , pp. 1 -10.
Abstract: EventGraphs are social media network diagrams of conversations related to events, such as conferences. Many conferences now communicate a common "hashtag" or keyword to identify messages related to the event. EventGraphs help make sense of the collections of connections that form when people follow, reply or mention one another and a keyword. This paper defines EventGraphs, characterizes different types, and shows how the social media network analysis add-in NodeXL supports their creation and analysis. The structural patterns to look for in EventGraphs are highlighted and design ideas for their improvement are discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hansen2011EventGraphs:,
  author = {Hansen, D. and Smith, M.A. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {EventGraphs: Charting Collections of Conference Connections},
  booktitle = {44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -10},
  doi = {10.1109/HICSS.2011.196}
}
Jae-wook A, Catherine P and Ben S (2011), "A task taxonomy of network evolution analysis"
Abstract: Visualization is a useful tool for understanding the nature of networks. The recent growth of social media requires more powerful visualization techniques beyond static network diagrams. One of the most important challenges is the visualization of temporal network evolution. In order to provide strong temporal visualization methods, we need to understand what tasks users accomplish. This study provides a taxonomy of the temporal network visualization tasks. We identify (1) the entities, (2) the properties to be visualized, and (3) the hierarchy of temporal features, which were extracted by surveying existing temporal network visualization systems. By building and examining the task taxonomy, we report which tasks have been covered so far and suggest additions for designing the future visualizations. We also present example visualizations constructed using the task taxonomy for a social networking site in order to validate the quality of the taxonomy.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Jae-wook2011task,
  author = {Jae-wook, Ahn and Catherine, Plaisant and Ben, Shneiderman},
  title = {A task taxonomy of network evolution analysis},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/2011-09/2011-09.pdf}
}
Khurana U, Nguyen V-A, Cheng H-C, Ahn J-w, Chen X(S and Shneiderman B (2011), "Visual Analysis of Temporal Trends in Social Networks Using Edge Color Coding and Metric Timelines", In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)., Oct., 2011. , pp. 549 -554.
Abstract: We present Net EvViz, a visualization tool for analysis and exploration of a dynamic social network. There are plenty of visual social network analysis tools but few provide features for visualization of dynamically changing networks featuring the addition or deletion of nodes or edges. Our tool extends the code base of the Node XL template for Microsoft Excel, a popular network visualization tool. The key features of this work are (1) The ability of the user to specify and edit temporal annotations to the network components in an Excel sheet, (2) See the dynamics of the network with multiple graph metrics plotted over the time span of the graph, called the Timeline, and (3) Temporal exploration of the network layout using an edge coloring scheme and a dynamic Time slider. The objectives of the new features presented in this paper are to let the data analysts, computer scientists and others to observe the dynamics or evolution in a network interactively. We presented Net EvViz to five users of Node XL and received positive responses.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Khurana2011Visual,
  author = {Khurana, Udayan and Nguyen, Viet-An and Cheng, Hsueh-Chien and Ahn, Jae-wook and Chen, Xi (Stephen) and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visual Analysis of Temporal Trends in Social Networks Using Edge Color Coding and Metric Timelines},
  booktitle = {Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {549 -554},
  doi = {10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.212}
}
Rodrigues EM, Milic-Frayling N, Smith M, Shneiderman B and Hansen D (2011), "Group-in-a-Box Layout for Multi-faceted Analysis of Communities", In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)., Oct., 2011. , pp. 354 -361.
Abstract: Communities in social networks emerge from interactions among individuals and can be analyzed through a combination of clustering and graph layout algorithms. These approaches result in 2D or 3D visualizations of clustered graphs, with groups of vertices representing individuals that form a community. However, in many instances the vertices have attributes that divide individuals into distinct categories such as gender, profession, geographic location, and similar. It is often important to investigate what categories of individuals comprise each community and vice-versa, how the community structures associate the individuals from the same category. Currently, there are no effective methods for analyzing both the community structure and the category-based partitions of social graphs. We propose Group-In-a-Box (GIB), a meta-layout for clustered graphs that enables multi-faceted analysis of networks. It uses the tree map space filling technique to display each graph cluster or category group within its own box, sized according to the number of vertices therein. GIB optimizes visualization of the network sub-graphs, providing a semantic substrate for category-based and cluster-based partitions of social graphs. We illustrate the application of GIB to multi-faceted analysis of real social networks and discuss desirable properties of GIB using synthetic datasets.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Rodrigues2011Group,
  author = {Rodrigues, Eduarda Mendes and Milic-Frayling, Natasa and Smith, Marc and Shneiderman, Ben and Hansen, Derek},
  title = {Group-in-a-Box Layout for Multi-faceted Analysis of Communities},
  booktitle = {Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {354 -361},
  doi = {10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.139}
}
Sharma P, Khurana U, Shneiderman B, Scharrenbroich M and Locke J (2011), "Speeding Up Network Layout and Centrality Measures for Social Computing Goals", In Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction. Vol. 6589, pp. 244-251. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: This paper presents strategies for speeding up calculation of graph metrics and layout by exploiting the parallel architecture of modern day Graphics Processing Units (GPU), specifically Compute Unified Device Architecture ( CUDA ) by Nvidia . Graph centrality metrics like Eigenvector , Betweenness , Page Rank and layout algorithms like Fruchterman − Rheingold are essential components of Social Network Analysis ( SNA ). With the growth in adoption of SNA in different domains and increasing availability of huge networked datasets for analysis, social network analysts require faster tools that are also scalable. Our results, using NodeXL, show up to 802 times speedup for a Fruchterman-Rheingold graph layout and up to 17,972 times speedup for Eigenvector centrality metric calculations on a 240 core CUDA-capable GPU.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Sharma2011Speeding,
  author = {Sharma, Puneet and Khurana, Udayan and Shneiderman, Ben and Scharrenbroich, Max and Locke, John},
  editor = {Salerno, John and Yang, Shanchieh and Nau, Dana and Chai, Sun-Ki},
  title = {Speeding Up Network Layout and Centrality Measures for Social Computing Goals},
  booktitle = {Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6589},
  pages = {244-251},
  note = {10.1007/978-3-642-19656-0_35},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19656-0_35}
}
Shneiderman B (2011), "Technology-Mediated Social Participation: The Next 25 Years of HCI Challenges", Agenda. Vol. 6761, pp. 3-14. University of Maryland.
Abstract: The dramatic success of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, and traditional discussion groups empowers individuals to become active in local and global communities. Some enthusiasts believe that with modest redesign, these technologies can be harnessed to support national priorities such as healthcare/wellness, disaster response, community safety, energy sustainability, etc. However, accomplishing these ambitious goals will require long-term research to develop validated scientific theories and reliable, secure, and scalable technology strategies. The enduring questions of how to motivate participation, increase social trust, and promote collaboration remain grand challenges even as the technology rapidly evolves. This talk invites researchers across multiple disciplines to participate in redefining our discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) along more social lines to answer vital research questions while creating inspirational prototypes, conducting innovative evaluations, and developing robust technologies. By placing greater emphasis on social media, the HCI community could constructively influence these historic changes.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Technology,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Jacko, Julie AEditor},
  title = {Technology-Mediated Social Participation: The Next 25 Years of HCI Challenges},
  journal = {Agenda},
  publisher = {University of Maryland},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6761},
  pages = {3--14},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/2011-03/2011-03.pdf}
}
Sureyya T, Catherine P, Ben S and A. Zachary H (2011), "Ensuring timely clinical lab test result management: A generative XML process model to support medical care"
Abstract: This paper presents the innovative design and implementation of MSTART (Multi-Step Task Alerting, Reminding, and Tracking), which uses XML specifications of a workflow model. This model specifies a hierarchy of process definitions, which when combined with a database of actors and organizations, provides input for an Interface Generator. This novel software architecture produces a domain independent system that can be widely used and easily modified to generate MSTART applications for business, academic, or other processes. Our focus in this paper is on handling medical laboratory tests to reduce the currently dangerous number of missed laboratory reports. This paper expands on our initial work [31] by describing three approaches to improve test processes so as to ensure that results are returned and acted on: (1) a refined workflow definition of agent temporal responsibilities to model more complex processes, (2) a strategy to generate actor action sheets that offer appropriate choices at each step, and (3) a configuration file mechanism to more accurately predict process result times. While our examples are tied to medical laboratory tests, our design supports many multistep processes.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Sureyya2011Ensuring,
  author = {Sureyya, Tarkan and Catherine, Plaisant and Ben, Shneiderman and A. Zachary, Hettinger},
  title = {Ensuring timely clinical lab test result management: A generative XML process model to support medical care},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/localphp/hcil/tech-reports-search.php?number=2011-15}
}
Tarkan S, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Hettinger Z (2011), "Reducing missed laboratory results: Defining temporal responsibility, generating user interfaces for test process tracking, and retrospective analyses to identify problems", In Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA), Vol., pp. 1382-1391, Washington D.C., Oct. 2012
Abstract: Researchers have conducted numerous case studies reporting the details on how laboratory test results of patients were missed by the ordering medical providers. Given the importance of timely test results in an outpatient setting, there is limited discussion of electronic versions of test result management tools to help clinicians and medical staff with this complex process. This paper presents three ideas to reduce missed results with a system that facilitates tracking laboratory tests from order to completion as well as during follow-up: (1) define a workflow management model that clarifies responsible agents and associated time frame, (2) generate a user interface for tracking that could eventually be integrated into current electronic health record (EHR) systems, (3) help identify common problems in past orders through retrospective analyses.
BibTeX:
@CONFERENCE{Tarkan2011Reducing,
  author = {Tarkan, Sureyya and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and
	Hettinger, Zachary},
  title = {Reducing missed laboratory results: Defining temporal responsibility,
	generating user interfaces for test process tracking, and retrospective
	analyses to identify problems},
  booktitle = {Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1382-1391},
  address = {Washington D.C.},
  month = {Oct.},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243200/}
}
Violi N, Shneiderman B, Hanson A and Rey P (2011), "Motivation for Participation in Online Neighborhood Watch Communities: An Empirical Study Involving Invitation Letters", In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)., Oct., 2011. , pp. 760 -765.
Abstract: This paper presents a three-part experiment designed to investigate the motivations of users of a community safety and neighborhood watch social networking website. The experiment centers around an intervention into the invitation system that current users employ to invite nonmembers to join the site, and involves several versions of an invitation email which differ by expressing one of four possible motivations for using such a site. The research presented investigates how potential users' choice of whether or not to join the site is affected by the use case presented by the invitation. It also includes an investigation of the motivations of current users of the site, as reported in an online survey. The experiment yielded no significant difference in responses to the emails. Overall, invitations that included a specific motivation slightly outperformed those which did not, but not to a statistically significant degree. We conclude that although users have specific motivations for using the site, as reported in the survey, attempting to increase response rates to invitation emails by suggesting use cases of the site is surprisingly unlikely to be successful.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Violi2011Motivation,
  author = {Violi, Nicholas and Shneiderman, Ben and Hanson, Art and Rey, PJ},
  title = {Motivation for Participation in Online Neighborhood Watch Communities: An Empirical Study Involving Invitation Letters},
  booktitle = {Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on and 2011 IEEE Third International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {760 -765},
  doi = {10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.108}
}
Wongsuphasawat K, Guerra Gómez JA, Plaisant C, Wang TD, Taieb-Maimon M and Shneiderman B (2011), "LifeFlow: visualizing an overview of event sequences", In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1747-1756. ACM.
Abstract: Event sequence analysis is an important task in many domains: medical researchers may study the patterns of transfers within the hospital for quality control; transportation experts may study accident response logs to identify best practices. In many cases they deal with thousands of records. While previous research has focused on searching and browsing, overview tasks are often overlooked. We introduce a novel interactive visual overview of event sequences called LifeFlow. LifeFlow is scalable, can summarize all possible sequences, and represents the temporal spacing of the events within sequences. Two case studies with healthcare and transportation domain experts are presented to illustrate the usefulness of LifeFlow. A user study with ten participants confirmed that after 15 minutes of training novice users were able to rapidly answer questions about the prevalence and temporal characteristics of sequences, find anomalies, and gain significant insight from the data.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wongsuphasawat2011LifeFlow:,
  author = {Wongsuphasawat, Krist and Guerra Gómez, John Alexis and Plaisant, Catherine and Wang, Taowei David and Taieb-Maimon, Meirav and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {LifeFlow: visualizing an overview of event sequences},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1747--1756},
  doi = {10.1145/1978942.1979196}
}
Markowitz E, Bernstam EV, Herskovic J, Zhang J, Shneiderman B, Plaisant C and Johnson TR (2011), "Medication Reconciliation: Work domain ontology, prototype development, and a predictive model,", Proc. American Medical Informatics Association., Oct., 2011. , pp. 878-887.
Abstract: Medication errors can result from administration inaccuracies at any point of care and are a major cause for concern. To develop a successful Medication Reconciliation (MR) tool, we believe it necessary to build a Work Domain Ontology (WDO) for the MR process. A WDO defines the explicit, abstract, implementation-independent description of the task by separating the task from work context, application technology, and cognitive architecture. We developed a prototype based upon the WDO and designed to adhere to standard principles of interface design. The prototype was compared to Legacy Health System’s and Pre-Admission Medication List Builder MR tools via a Keystroke-Level Model analysis for three MR tasks. The analysis found the prototype requires the fewest mental operations, completes tasks in the fewest steps, and completes tasks in the least amount of time. Accordingly, we believe that developing a MR tool, based upon the WDO and user interface guidelines, improves user efficiency and reduces cognitive load.
BibTeX:
@article{Markowitz2011Medication,
  author = {Markowitz, Eliz and Bernstam, Elmer V. and Herskovic, Jorge and Zhang, Jiajie and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Johnson, Todd R.},
  title = {Medication Reconciliation: Work domain ontology, prototype development, and a predictive model,},
  journal = {Proc. American Medical Informatics Association},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {878-887},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243117/}
}
Sopan A, Freire M, Taieb M, Plaisant C, Golbeck J and Shneiderman B (2010), "Exploring distributions: Design and evaluations", April, 2010.
Abstract: Visual overviews of tables of numerical and categorical data have been proposed for tables with a single value per cell. In this paper we address the problem of exploring tables including columns consisting of distributions, e.g. the distributions of movie ratings or trust ratings in recommender systems, age distributions in demographic data, usage distributions in logs of telephone calls etc. We propose a novel way of displaying and interacting with distribution data, and present the results of a usability study that demonstrates the benefits of the interface in providing an overview of the data and facilitating the discovery of interesting clusters, patterns, outliers and relationships between columns.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Awalin2010Exploring,
  author = {Awalin, Sopan and Manuel, Freire and Meirav, Taieb and Catherine, Plaisant and Golbeck, Jennifer and Ben, Shneiderman},
  title = {Exploring distributions: Design and evaluations},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/2010-01/2010-01.pdf}
}
Freire M, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Golbeck J (2010), "ManyNets: an interface for multiple network analysis and visualization", In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 213-222. ACM.
Abstract: Traditional network analysis tools support analysts in studying a single network. ManyNets offers these analysts a powerful new approach that enables them to work on multiple networks simultaneously. Several thousand networks can be presented as rows in a tabular visualization, and then inspected, sorted and filtered according to their attributes. The networks to be displayed can be obtained by subdivision of larger networks. Examples of meaningful subdivisions used by analysts include ego networks, community extraction, and time-based slices. Cell visualizations and interactive column overviews allow analysts to assess the distribution of attributes within particular sets of networks. Details, such as traditional node-link diagrams, are available on demand. We describe a case study analyzing a social network geared towards film recommendations by means of decomposition. A small usability study provides feedback on the use of the interface on a set of tasks issued from the case study.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Freire2010ManyNets:,
  author = {Freire, Manuel and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Golbeck, Jen},
  title = {ManyNets: an interface for multiple network analysis and visualization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {213--222},
  doi = {10.1145/1753326.1753358}
}
Hansen D, Shneiderman B and Smith M (2010), "Visualizing Threaded Conversation Networks: Mining Message Boards and Email Lists for Actionable Insights", In Active Media Technology. Vol. 6335, pp. 47-62. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: Analyzing complex online relationships is a difficult job, but new information visualization tools are enabling a wider range of users to make actionable insights from the growing volume of online data. This paper describes the challenges and methods for conducting analyses of threaded conversations such as found in enterprise message boards, email lists, and forums. After defining threaded conversation, we characterize the types of networks that can be extracted from them. We then provide 3 mini case studies to illustrate how actionable insights for community managers can be gained by applying the network analysis metrics and visualizations available in the free, open source NodeXL tool, which is a powerful, yet easy-to-use tool embedded in Excel 2007/2010.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hansen2010Visualizing,
  author = {Hansen, Derek and Shneiderman, Ben and Smith, Marc},
  editor = {An, Aijun and Lingras, Pawan and Petty, Sheila and Huang, Runhe},
  title = {Visualizing Threaded Conversation Networks: Mining Message Boards and Email Lists for Actionable Insights},
  booktitle = {Active Media Technology},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {6335},
  pages = {47-62},
  note = {10.1007/978-3-642-15470-6_7},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15470-6_7}
}
Wang TD, Wongsuphasawat K, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2010), "Visual information seeking in multiple electronic health records: design recommendations and a process model", In Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Health Informatics Symposium. New York, NY, USA , pp. 46-55. ACM.
Abstract: Current electronic health record (EHR) systems facilitate the storage, retrieval, persistence, and sharing of patient data. However, the way physicians interact with EHRs has not changed much. More specifically, support for temporal analysis of a large number of EHRs has been lacking. A number of information visualization techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, due to their limited application to a single case study, the results are often difficult to generalize across medical scenarios. We present the usage data of Lifelines2,[22] our information visualization system, and user comments, both collected over eight different medical case studies. We generalize our experience into an information-seeking process model for multiple EHRs. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations to future information visualization designers for EHRs on design requirements and future research directions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wang2010Visual,
  author = {Wang, Taowei David and Wongsuphasawat, Krist and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visual information seeking in multiple electronic health records: design recommendations and a process model},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Health Informatics Symposium},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {46--55},
  doi = {10.1145/1882992.1883001}
}
Bonsignore E, Dunne C, Rotman D, Smith M, Capone T, Hansen D and Shneiderman B (2009), "First Steps to Netviz Nirvana: Evaluating Social Network Analysis with NodeXL", In International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering., Aug., 2009. Vol. 4, pp. 332 -339.
Abstract: Social Network Analysis (SNA) has evolved as a popular, standard method for modeling meaningful, often hidden structural relationships in communities. Existing SNA tools often involve extensive pre-processing or intensive programming skills that can challenge practitioners and students alike. NodeXL, an open-source template for Microsoft Excel, integrates a library of common network metrics and graph layout algorithms within the familiar spreadsheet format, offering a potentially low-barrier-to-entry framework for teaching and learning SNA. We present the preliminary findings of 2 user studies of 21 graduate students who engaged in SNA using NodeXL. The majority of students, while information professionals, had little technical background or experience with SNA techniques. Six of the participants had more technical backgrounds and were chosen specifically for their experience with graph drawing and information visualization. Our primary objectives were (1) to evaluate NodeXL as an SNA tool for a broad base of users and (2) to explore methods for teaching SNA. Our complementary dual case-study format demonstrates the usability of NodeXL for a diverse set of users, and significantly, the power of a tightly integrated metrics/visualization tool to spark insight and facilitate sense-making for students of SNA.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bonsignore2009First,
  author = {Bonsignore, E.M. and Dunne, C. and Rotman, D. and Smith, M. and Capone, T. and Hansen, D.L. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {First Steps to Netviz Nirvana: Evaluating Social Network Analysis with NodeXL},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {332 -339},
  doi = {10.1109/CSE.2009.120}
}
Dunne C and Shneiderman B (2009), "Improving Graph Drawing Readability by Incorporating Readability Metrics : A Software Tool for Network Analysts", HCIL Techincal Report. Citeseer.
Abstract: Designing graph drawings that effectively communicate the underlying network is challenging as for every network there are many potential unintelligible or even misleading drawings. Automated graph layout algorithms have helped, but frequently generate ineffective drawings. In order to build awareness of effective graph drawing strategies, we detail readability metrics on a 0,1 continuous scale for node occlusion, edge crossing, edge crossing angle, and edge tunneling and summarize many more. Additionally, we define new node & edge readability metrics to provide more localized identification of where improvement is needed. These are implemented in SocialAction, a tool for social network analysis, in order to direct users towards poor areas of the drawing and provide real-time readability metric feedback as users manipulate it. These contributions are aimed at heightening the awareness of network analysts that the images they share or publish could be of higher quality, so that readers could extract relevant information.
BibTeX:
@article{Dunne2009Improving,
  author = {Dunne, Cody and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Improving Graph Drawing Readability by Incorporating Readability Metrics : A Software Tool for Network Analysts},
  journal = {HCIL Techincal Report},
  publisher = {Citeseer},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www-lb.cs.umd.edu/~cdunne/hcil/pubs/Dunne09Improvinggraphdrawing.pdf}
}
Hansen DL, Rotman D, Bonsignore E, frayling null NM, Rodrigues EM, Smith M, Shneiderman B and Capone T (2009), "Do you know the way to SNA?: A process model for analyzing and visualizing social media data.” Submitted"
Abstract: Traces of activity left by social media users can shed light on individual behavior, social relationships, and community efficacy. Tools and processes to analyze social traces are essential for enabling practitioners to study and nurture meaningful and sustainable social interaction. Yet such tools and processes remain in their infancy. We conducted a study of 15 graduate students who were learning to apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) to data from online communities. Based on close observations of their emergent practices, we derived the Network Analysis and Visualization (NAV) process model and identified stages where intervention from peers, experts, and an SNA tool were most useful. We show how the NAV model informs the design of SNA tools and services, education practices, and support for social media practitioners.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hansen2009Do,
  author = {Derek L. Hansen and Dana Rotman and Elizabeth Bonsignore and Nataša Mili?-frayling and Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues and Marc Smith and Ben Shneiderman and Tony Capone},
  title = {Do you know the way to SNA?: A process model for analyzing and visualizing social media data.” Submitted},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.148.3255}
}
han Jong C, Rajkumar P, Siddiquie B, Clement T, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2009), "Interactive Exploration of Versions across Multiple Documents", Proceedings of Digital Humanities Conference.
BibTeX:
@misc{Jong2009Interactive,
  author = {Chang-han Jong and Prahalad Rajkumar and Behjat Siddiquie and Tanya Clement and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Interactive Exploration of Versions across Multiple Documents},
  howpublished = {Proceedings of Digital Humanities Conference},
  year = {2009}
}
Smith MA, Shneiderman B, Milic-Frayling N, Mendes Rodrigues E, Barash V, Dunne C, Capone T, Perer A and Gleave E (2009), "Analyzing (social media) networks with NodeXL", In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communities and Technologies. New York, NY, USA , pp. 255-264. ACM.
Abstract: We present NodeXL, an extendible toolkit for network overview, discovery and exploration implemented as an add-in to the Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet software. We demonstrate NodeXL data analysis and visualization features with a social media data sample drawn from an enterprise intranet social network. A sequence of NodeXL operations from data import to computation of network statistics and refinement of network visualization through sorting, filtering, and clustering functions is described. These operations reveal sociologically relevant differences in the patterns of interconnection among employee participants in the social media space. The tool and method can be broadly applied.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Smith2009Analyzing,
  author = {Smith, Marc A. and Shneiderman, Ben and Milic-Frayling, Natasa and Mendes Rodrigues, Eduarda and Barash, Vladimir and Dunne, Cody and Capone, Tony and Perer, Adam and Gleave, Eric},
  title = {Analyzing (social media) networks with NodeXL},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communities and Technologies},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {255--264},
  doi = {10.1145/1556460.1556497}
}
Wang TD, Wongsuphasawat K, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2009), "Exploratory Search Over Temporal Event Sequences: Novel Requirements, Operations, and a Process Model".
Abstract: Developing a detailed requirement analysis facilitates the building of interactive visualization systems that support exploratory analysis of multiple temporal event sequences. We discuss our experiences with collaborators in several domains on how they have used our systems and present a process model for exploratory search as the generalization of our experiences. This process model is intended as an outline of high-level analysis activities, and we hope can be a useful model for future and ongoing exploratory search tools.
BibTeX:
@misc{Wang2009Exploratory,
  author = {Taowei David Wang and Krist Wongsuphasawat and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Exploratory Search Over Temporal Event Sequences: Novel Requirements, Operations, and a Process Model},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.165.6432}
}
Wang T, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B, Spring N, Roseman D, Marchand G, Mukherjee V and Smith M (2009), "Temporal Summaries: Supporting Temporal Categorical Searching, Aggregation and Comparison", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics., Nov.-Dec., 2009. Vol. 15(6), pp. 1049 -1056.
Abstract: When analyzing thousands of event histories, analysts often want to see the events as an aggregate to detect insights and generate new hypotheses about the data. An analysis tool must emphasize both the prevalence and the temporal ordering of these events. Additionally, the analysis tool must also support flexible comparisons to allow analysts to gather visual evidence. In a previous work, we introduced align, rank, and filter (ARF) to accentuate temporal ordering. In this paper, we present temporal summaries, an interactive visualization technique that highlights the prevalence of event occurrences. Temporal summaries dynamically aggregate events in multiple granularities (year, month, week, day, hour, etc.) for the purpose of spotting trends over time and comparing several groups of records. They provide affordances for analysts to perform temporal range filters. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in two extensive case studies with analysts who applied temporal summaries to search, filter, and look for patterns in electronic health records and academic records.
BibTeX:
@article{Wang2009Temporal,
  author = {Wang, T.D. and Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B. and Spring, N. and Roseman, D. and Marchand, G. and Mukherjee, V. and Smith, M.},
  title = {Temporal Summaries: Supporting Temporal Categorical Searching, Aggregation and Comparison},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {15},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1049 -1056},
  doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2009.187}
}
Wongsuphasawat K and Shneiderman B (2009), "Finding comparable temporal categorical records: A similarity measure with an interactive visualization", In IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology., Oct., 2009. , pp. 27 -34.
Abstract: An increasing number of temporal categorical databases are being collected: Electronic Health Records in healthcare organizations, traffic incident logs in transportation systems, or student records in universities. Finding similar records within these large databases requires effective similarity measures that capture the searcher's intent. Many similarity measures exist for numerical time series, but temporal categorical records are different. We propose a temporal categorical similarity measure, the M amp;M (Match amp; Mismatch) measure, which is based on the concept of aligning records by sentinel events, then matching events between the target and the compared records. The M amp;M measure combines the time differences between pairs of events and the number of mismatches. To accom-modate customization of parameters in the M amp;M measure and results interpretation, we implemented Similan, an interactive search and visualization tool for temporal categorical records. A usability study with 8 participants demonstrated that Similan was easy to learn and enabled them to find similar records, but users had difficulty understanding the M amp;M measure. The usability study feedback, led to an improved version with a continuous timeline, which was tested in a pilot study with 5 participants.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wongsuphasawat2009Finding,
  author = {Wongsuphasawat, K. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Finding comparable temporal categorical records: A similarity measure with an interactive visualization},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {27 -34},
  doi = {10.1109/VAST.2009.5332595}
}
Zalinger J, Freier NG, Freire M, Oard D and Shneiderman B (2009), "Reading Ben Shneiderman’s Email: Identifying Narrative Elements in Email Archives", Personal Archiving: Perserving Our Digital Heritage, Information Today, Inc, pp.109-135.
Abstract: This paper describes techniques for finding narrative elements in the archived email of a scholar. The goal is to test a narrative approach to searching using a 15-year email archive containing nearly 45,000 messages belonging to University of Maryland Professor Ben Shneiderman and ranging from 1984-1998. The goal is not to find complete narratives (although, many do exist) but to search for narrative elements, the building blocks that make up a narrative. Thus, narrative search is defined as both a set of search techniques and a way of thinking like a storyteller that allows designers and users to uncover narrative elements. We argue that narrative search is a promising strategy that can be productively applied to other email archives. This paper makes a contribution to HCI by showing that a narrative approach to search can be productive and compelling. By encouraging designers (and users) to think like storytellers, we can create robust interfaces that help users make narrative sense out of overwhelming amounts of messages.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Zalinger2009Reading,
  author = {Jason Zalinger and Nathan G. Freier and Manuel Freire and Doug Oard and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Reading Ben Shneiderman’s Email: Identifying Narrative Elements in Email Archives},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.296.6277}
}
Aris A and Shneiderman B (2008), "A Node Aggregation Strategy to Reduce Complexity of Network Visualization using Semantic Substrates", April, 2008.
Abstract: Semantic substrates are spatial templates for networks, where nodes are grouped into regions and laid out within each region according to one or more node attributes. Analysts ability to design their own substrates leads to a different approach than other more automatic approaches to layout nodes (force-directed, circular, etc.). While the semantic substrate approach provides more interpretable node locations, sometimes a set of nodes is compressed into a small space on the display, leading to node overlap. In this paper, we significantly improve this situation by introducing the node aggregation mechanism in the context of semantic substrates. We illustrate this functionality in a document citation network and provide pros and cons of the approach. We conclude with guidelines and future directions for this research. Throughout the paper, examples are illustrated with NVSS 3.0, the network visualization tool developed to explore the semantic substrate idea
BibTeX:
@techreport{Aris2008Node,
  author = {Aris, Aleks and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A Node Aggregation Strategy to Reduce Complexity of Network Visualization using Semantic Substrates},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.145.3100&rep=rep1&type=pdf}
}
Perer A and Shneiderman B (2008), "Integrating statistics and visualization: case studies of gaining clarity during exploratory data analysis", In Proceedings of the 26th Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 265-274. ACM.
Abstract: Although both statistical methods and visualizations have been used by network analysts, exploratory data analysis remains a challenge. We propose that a tight integration of these technologies in an interactive exploratory tool could dramatically speed insight development. To test the power of this integrated approach, we created a novel social network analysis tool, SocialAction, and conducted four long-term case studies with domain experts, each working on unique data sets with unique problems. The structured replicated case studies show that the integrated approach in SocialAction led to significant discoveries by a political analyst, a bibliometrician, a healthcare consultant, and a counter-terrorism researcher. Our contributions demonstrate that the tight integration of statistics and visualizations improves exploratory data analysis, and that our evaluation methodology for long-term case studies captures the research strategies of data analysts.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Perer2008Integrating,
  author = {Perer, Adam and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Integrating statistics and visualization: case studies of gaining clarity during exploratory data analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 26th Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {265--274},
  doi = {10.1145/1357054.1357101}
}
Perer A and Shneiderman B (2008), "Systematic yet flexible discovery: guiding domain experts through exploratory data analysis", In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. New York, NY, USA , pp. 109-118. ACM.
Abstract: During exploratory data analysis, visualizations are often useful for making sense of complex data sets. However, as data sets increase in size and complexity, static information visualizations decrease in comprehensibility. Interactive techniques can yield valuable discoveries, but current data analysis tools typically support only opportunistic exploration that may be inefficient and incomplete.

We present a refined architecture that uses systematic yet flexible (SYF) design goals to guide domain expert users through complex exploration of data over days, weeks and months. The SYF system aims to support exploratory data analysis with some of the simplicity of an e-commerce check-out while providing added flexibility to pursue insights. The SYF system provides an overview of the analysis process, suggests unexplored states, allows users to annotate useful states, supports collaboration, and enables reuse of successful strategies. The affordances of the SYF system are demonstrated by integrating it into a social network analysis tool employed by social scientists and intelligence analysts. The SYF system is a tool-independent component and can be incorporated into other data analysis tools.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Perer2008Systematic,
  author = {Perer, Adam and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Systematic yet flexible discovery: guiding domain experts through exploratory data analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {109--118},
  doi = {10.1145/1378773.1378788}
}
Plaisant C, Lam S, Shneiderman B, Smith MS, Roseman D, Marchand G, Gillam M, Feied C, Handler J and Rappaport H (2008), "Searching electronic health records for temporal patterns in patient histories: a case study with microsoft amalga.", Proceedings American Medical Informatics Association. Vol. 2008(April), pp. 601-605. American Medical Informatics Association.
Abstract: As electronic health records (EHR) become more widespread, they enable clinicians and researchers to pose complex queries that can benefit immediate patient care and deepen understanding of medical treatment and outcomes. However, current query tools make complex temporal queries difficult to pose, and physicians have to rely on computer professionals to specify the queries for them. This paper describes our efforts to develop a novel query tool implemented in a large operational system at the Washington Hospital Center (Microsoft Amalga, formerly known as Azyxxi). We describe our design of the interface to specify temporal patterns and the visual presentation of results, and report on a pilot user study looking for adverse reactions following radiology studies using contrast.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant2008Searching,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Lam, Stanley and Shneiderman, Ben and Smith, Mark S and Roseman, David and Marchand, Greg and Gillam, Michael and Feied, Craig and Handler, Jonathan and Rappaport, Hank},
  title = {Searching electronic health records for temporal patterns in patient histories: a case study with microsoft amalga.},
  journal = {Proceedings American Medical Informatics Association},
  publisher = {American Medical Informatics Association},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2008},
  number = {April},
  pages = {601--605},
  url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2655947&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract}
}
Shneiderman B (2008), "Extreme visualization: squeezing a billion records into a million pixels", In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data. New York, NY, USA , pp. 3-12. ACM.
Abstract: Database searches are usually performed with query languages and form fill in templates, with results displayed in tabular lists. However, excitement is building around dynamic queries sliders and other graphical selectors for query specification, with results displayed by information visualization techniques. These filtering techniques have proven to be effective for many tasks in which visual presentations enable discovery of relationships, clusters, outliers, gaps, and other patterns. Scaling visual presentations from millions to billions of records will require collaborative research efforts in information visualization and database management to enable rapid aggregation, meaningful coordinated windows, and effective summary graphics. This paper describes current and proposed solutions (atomic, aggregated, and density plots) that facilitate sense-making for interactive visual exploration of billion record data sets.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2008Extreme,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Extreme visualization: squeezing a billion records into a million pixels},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {3--12},
  doi = {10.1145/1376616.1376618}
}
Wang TD, Plaisant C, Quinn AJ, Stanchak R, Murphy S and Shneiderman B (2008), "Aligning temporal data by sentinel events: discovering patterns in electronic health records", In Proceedings of the 26th annual SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 457-466. ACM.
Abstract: Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and other temporal databases contain hidden patterns that reveal important cause-and-effect phenomena. Finding these patterns is a challenge when using traditional query languages and tabular displays. We present an interactive visual tool that complements query formulation by providing operations to align, rank and filter the results, and to visualize estimates of the intervals of validity of the data. Display of patient histories aligned on sentinel events (such as a first heart attack) enables users to spot precursor, co-occurring, and aftereffect events. A controlled study demonstrates the benefits of providing alignment (with a 61% speed improvement for complex tasks). A qualitative study and interviews with medical professionals demonstrates that the interface can be learned quickly and seems to address their needs.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wang2008Aligning,
  author = {Wang, Taowei David and Plaisant, Catherine and Quinn, Alexander J. and Stanchak, Roman and Murphy, Shawn and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Aligning temporal data by sentinel events: discovering patterns in electronic health records},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 26th annual SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {457--466},
  doi = {10.1145/1357054.1357129}
}
Wu P, Qu Y, Preece J, Fleischmann KR, Golbeck J, Jaeger PT and Shneiderman B (2008), "Community Response Grid (CRG) for a University Campus: Design Requirements and Implications", In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRM08. (May), pp. 34-43.
Abstract: This paper describes the initial stages of the participatory design of a community-oriented emergency response system for a university campus. After reviewing related work and the current University emergency response system, this paper describes our participatory design process, discusses initial findings from a design requirement survey and from our interactions with different stakeholders, and proposes a Web interface design for a community response grid system. The prototyping of the system demonstrates the possibility of fostering a social-network-based community participation in emergency response, and also identifies concerns raised by potential users and by the professional responder community.
BibTeX:
@inbook{Wu2008Community,
  author = {Wu, Philip and Qu, Yan and Preece, Jennifer and Fleischmann, Kenneth R and Golbeck, Jennifer and Jaeger, Paul T and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Community Response Grid (CRG) for a University Campus: Design Requirements and Implications},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRM08},
  year = {2008},
  number = {May},
  pages = {34--43},
  url = {http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~fwu/Wu.ISCRAM2008.pdf}
}
Buono P, Plaisant C, Simeone A, Aris A, Shneiderman B, Shmueli G and Jank W (2007), "Similarity-Based Forecasting with Simultaneous Previews: A River Plot Interface for Time Series Forecasting", In 11th International Conference on Information Visualization., July, 2007. , pp. 191 -196.
Abstract: Time-series forecasting has a large number of applications. Users with a partial time series for auctions, new stock offerings, or industrial processes desire estimates of the future behavior. We present a data driven forecasting method and interface called similarity-based forecasting (SBF). A pattern matching search in an historical time series dataset produces a subset of curves similar to the partial time series. The forecast is displayed graphically as a river plot showing statistical information about the SBF subset. A forecasting preview interface allows users to interactively explore alternative pattern matching parameters and see multiple forecasts simultaneously. User testing with 8 users demonstrated advantages and led to improvements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Buono2007Similarity,
  author = {Buono, P. and Plaisant, C. and Simeone, A. and Aris, A. and Shneiderman, B. and Shmueli, G. and Jank, W.},
  title = {Similarity-Based Forecasting with Simultaneous Previews: A River Plot Interface for Time Series Forecasting},
  booktitle = {11th International Conference on Information Visualization},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {191 -196},
  doi = {10.1109/IV.2007.101}
}
Don A, Zheleva E, Gregory M, Tarkan S, Auvil L, Clement T, Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (2007), "Discovering interesting usage patterns in text collections: integrating text mining with visualization", In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. New York, NY, USA , pp. 213-222. ACM.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of making text mining results more comprehensible to humanities scholars, journalists, intelligence analysts, and other researchers, in order to support the analysis of text collections. Our system, FeatureLens1, visualizes a text collection at several levels of granularity and enables users to explore interesting text patterns. The current implementation focuses on frequent itemsets of n-grams, as they capture the repetition of exact or similar expressions in the collection. Users can find meaningful co-occurrences of text patterns by visualizing them within and across documents in the collection. This also permits users to identify the temporal evolution of usage such as increasing, decreasing or sudden appearance of text patterns. The interface could be used to explore other text features as well. Initial studies suggest that FeatureLens helped a literary scholar and 8 users generate new hypotheses and interesting insights using 2 text collections.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Don2007Discovering,
  author = {Don, Anthony and Zheleva, Elena and Gregory, Machon and Tarkan, Sureyya and Auvil, Loretta and Clement, Tanya and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {Discovering interesting usage patterns in text collections: integrating text mining with visualization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {213--222},
  doi = {10.1145/1321440.1321473}
}
Namata GM, Staats B, Getoor L and Shneiderman B (2007), "A dual-view approach to interactive network visualization", In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. New York, NY, USA , pp. 939-942. ACM.
Abstract: Visualizing network data, from tree structures to arbitrarily connected graphs, is a difficult problem in information visualization. A large part of the problem is that in network data, users not only have to visualize the attributes specific to each data item, but also the links specifying how those items are connected to each other. Past approaches to resolving these difficulties focus on zooming, clustering, filtering and applying various methods of laying out nodes and edges. Such approaches, however, focus only on optimizing a network visualization in a single view, limiting the amount of information that can be shown and explored in parallel. Moreover, past approaches do not allow users to cross reference different subsets or aspects of large, complex networks. In this paper, we propose an approach to these limitations using multiple coordinated views of a given network. To illustrate our approach, we implement a tool called DualNet and evaluate the tool with a case study using an email communication network. We show how using multiple coordinated views improves navigation and provides insight into large networks with multiple node and link properties and types.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Namata2007dual,
  author = {Namata, Galileo Mark and Staats, Brian and Getoor, Lise and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A dual-view approach to interactive network visualization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {939--942},
  doi = {10.1145/1321440.1321580}
}
Wu PF, Preece J, Shneiderman B, Jaeger PT and Qu Y (2007), "Community Response Grids for Older Adults : Motivations , Usability , and Sociability", In Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems.
Abstract: This paper explores the concept of developing a 911.gov emergency response system for communities and the policy implications of such a system. Built as a community response grid, the 911.gov system would rely on the Internet and the mobile communication devices to allow citizens to receive and submit information about significant homeland security community problems, such as floods, wildfires, hurricanes, or terrorist attacks. This paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies and the Web, specifically through e-government, to develop response systems that would aid communities before, during, and after an emergency, providing channels for contacting authorities, uploading information, distributing information, coordinating the responses of social networks, and facilitating resident-to-resident assistance. The paper elaborates on the concept of a 911.gov system, examines related current efforts that can inform the development of 911.gov, articulates how research about community networks can be used to instill a social dimension in a 911.gov system, and examines the issues of public policy, telecommunications, and e-government related to such a system.
BibTeX:
@inbook{Wu2007Community,
  author = {Wu, Philip Fei and Preece, Jenny and Shneiderman, Ben and Jaeger, P T and Qu, Yan},
  title = {Community Response Grids for Older Adults : Motivations , Usability , and Sociability},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/911gov/AMCIS.pdf}
}
Bilgic M, Licamele L, Getoor L and Shneiderman B (2006), "D-Dupe: An Interactive Tool for Entity Resolution in Social Networks", In IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science And Technology., Nov., 2006. , pp. 43 -50.
Abstract: Visualizing and analyzing social networks is a challenging problem that has been receiving growing attention. An important first step, before analysis can begin, is ensuring that the data is accurate. A common data quality problem is that the data may inadvertently contain several distinct references to the same underlying entity; the process of reconciling these references is called entity-resolution. D-Dupe is an interactive tool that combines data mining algorithms for entity resolution with a task-specific network visualization. Users cope with complexity of cleaning large networks by focusing on a small subnetwork containing a potential duplicate pair. The subnetwork highlights relationships in the social network, making the common relationships easy to visually identify. D-Dupe users resolve ambiguities either by merging nodes or by marking them distinct. The entity resolution process is iterative: as pairs of nodes are resolved, additional duplicates may be revealed; therefore, resolution decisions are often chained together. We give examples of how users can flexibly apply sequences of actions to produce a high quality entity resolution result. We illustrate and evaluate the benefits of D-Dupe on three bibliographic collections. Two of the datasets had already been cleaned, and therefore should not have contained duplicates; despite this fact, many duplicates were rapidly identified using D-Dupe's unique combination of entity resolution algorithms within a task-specific visual interface
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bilgic2006D,
  author = {Bilgic, M. and Licamele, L. and Getoor, L. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {D-Dupe: An Interactive Tool for Entity Resolution in Social Networks},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science And Technology},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {43 -50},
  doi = {10.1109/VAST.2006.261429}
}
Fails J, Karlson A, Shahamat L and Shneiderman B (2006), "A Visual Interface for Multivariate Temporal Data: Finding Patterns of Events across Multiple Histories", In IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science And Technology., Nov., 2006. , pp. 167 -174.
Abstract: Finding patterns of events over time is important in searching patient histories, Web logs, news stories, and criminal activities. This paper presents PatternFinder, an integrated interface for query and result-set visualization for search and discovery of temporal patterns within multivariate and categorical data sets. We define temporal patterns as sequences of events with inter-event time spans. PatternFinder allows users to specify the attributes of events and time spans to produce powerful pattern queries that are difficult to express with other formalisms. We characterize the range of queries PatternFinder supports as users vary the specificity at which events and time spans are defined. Pattern Finder's query capabilities together with coupled ball-and-chain and tabular visualizations enable users to effectively query, explore and analyze event patterns both within and across data entities (e.g. patient histories, terrorist groups, Web logs, etc.)
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Fails2006Visual,
  author = {Fails, J.A. and Karlson, A. and Shahamat, L. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {A Visual Interface for Multivariate Temporal Data: Finding Patterns of Events across Multiple Histories},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science And Technology},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {167 -174},
  doi = {10.1109/VAST.2006.261421}
}
Kules B, Kustanowitz J and Shneiderman B (2006), "Categorizing web search results into meaningful and stable categories using fast-feature techniques", In Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. New York, NY, USA , pp. 210-219. ACM.
Abstract: When search results against digital libraries and web resources have limited metadata, augmenting them with meaningful and stable category information can enable better overviews and support user exploration. This paper proposes six fast-feature techniques that use only features available in the search result list, such as title, snippet, and URL, to categorize results into meaningful categories. They use credible knowledge resources, including a US government organizational hierarchy, a thematic hierarchy from the Open Directory Project (ODP) web directory, and personal browse histories, to add valuable metadata to search results. In three tests the percent of results categorized for five representative queries was high enough to suggest practical benefits: general web search (76-90%), government web search (39-100%), and the Bureau of Labor Statistics website (48-94%). An additional test submitted 250 TREC queries to a search engine and successfully categorized 66% of the top 100 using the ODP and 61% of the top 350. Fast-feature techniques have been implemented in a prototype search engine. We propose research directions to improve categorization rates and make suggestions about how web site designers could re-organize their sites to support fast categorization of search results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kules2006Categorizing,
  author = {Kules, Bill and Kustanowitz, Jack and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Categorizing web search results into meaningful and stable categories using fast-feature techniques},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {210--219},
  doi = {10.1145/1141753.1141801}
}
Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (2006), "Strategies for evaluating information visualization tools: multi-dimensional in-depth long-term case studies", In Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on Beyond Time and Errors: Novel Evaluation Methods for Information Visualization. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1-7. ACM.
Abstract: After an historical review of evaluation methods, we describe an emerging research method called Multi-dimensional In-depth Long-term Case studies (MILCs) which seems well adapted to study the creative activities that users of information visualization systems engage in. We propose that the efficacy of tools can be assessed by documenting 1) usage (observations, interviews, surveys, logging etc.) and 2) expert users' success in achieving their professional goals. We summarize lessons from related ethnography methods used in HCI and provide guidelines for conducting MILCs for information visualization. We suggest ways to refine the methods for MILCs in modest sized projects and then envision ambitious projects with 3-10 researchers working over 1-3 years to understand individual and organizational use of information visualization by domain experts working at the frontiers of knowledge in their fields.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2006Strategies,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {Strategies for evaluating information visualization tools: multi-dimensional in-depth long-term case studies},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on Beyond Time and Errors: Novel Evaluation Methods for Information Visualization},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {10.1145/1168149.1168158}
}
Aris A, Shneiderman B, Plaisant C, Shmueli G and Jank W (2005), "Representing Unevenly-Spaced Time Series Data for Visualization and Interactive Exploration", In Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2005. Vol. 3585, pp. 835-846. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: Visualizing time series is useful to support discovery of relations and patterns in financial, genomic, medical and other applications. Often, measurements are equally spaced over time. We discuss the challenges of unevenly-spaced time series and present fourrepresentationmethods: sampled events, aggregated sampled events, event index and interleaved event index. We developed these methods while studying eBay auction data with TimeSearcher. We describe the advantages, disadvantages, choices for algorithms and parameters, and compare the different methods for different tasks. Interaction issues such as screen resolution, response time for dynamic queries, and learnability are governed by these decisions.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Aris2005Representing,
  author = {Aris, Aleks and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Shmueli, Galit and Jank, Wolfgang},
  editor = {Costabile, Maria and Paternò, Fabio},
  title = {Representing Unevenly-Spaced Time Series Data for Visualization and Interactive Exploration},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2005},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3585},
  pages = {835-846},
  note = {10.1007/11555261_66},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11555261_66}
}
Buono P, Aris A, Plaisant C, Khella A and Shneiderman B (2005), "Interactive pattern search in time series", Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 5669(2), pp. 175-186. Spie.
Abstract: The need for pattern discovery in long time series data led researchers to develop algorithms for similarity search. Most of the literature about time series focuses on algorithms that index time series and bring the data into the main storage, thus providing fast information retrieval on large time series. This paper reviews the state of the art in visualizing time series, and focuses on techniques that enable users to visually and interactively query time series. Then, it presents TimeSearcher 2, a tool that enables users to explore multidimensional data using synchronized tables and graphs with overview+detail, filter the time series data to reduce the scope of the search, select an existing pattern to find similar occurrences, and interactively adjust similarity parameters to narrow the result set. This tool is an extension of previous work, TimeSearcher 1, which uses graphical timeboxes to interactively query time series data.
BibTeX:
@article{Buono2005Interactive,
  author = {Buono, Paolo and Aris, Aleks and Plaisant, Catherine and Khella, Amir and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Interactive pattern search in time series},
  journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
  publisher = {Spie},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {5669},
  number = {2},
  pages = {175--186},
  doi = {10.1117/12.587537}
}
Kustanowitz J and Shneiderman B (2005), "Meaningful presentations of photo libraries: rationale and applications of bi-level radial quantum layouts", In Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. New York, NY, USA , pp. 188-196. ACM.
Abstract: Searching photo libraries can be made more satisfying and successful if search results are presented in a way that allows users to gain an overview of the photo categories. Since photo layouts on computer displays are the primary way that users get an overview, we propose a novel approach to show more photos in meaningful groupings. Photo layouts can be linear strips, or zoomable three dimensional arrangements, but the most common form is the two-dimensional grid. This paper introduces a novel bi-level hierarchical layout with motivating examples. In a bi-level hierarchy, one region is designated for primary content - an image, text, or combination. Adjacent to that region, groups of photos are placed radially in an ordered fashion, such that the relationship of the single primary region to its many secondary regions is apparent. A compelling aspect is the interactive experience in which the layout is dynamically resized, allowing users to rapidly, incrementally, and reversibly alter the dimensions and content. It can accommodate hundreds of photos in dozens of regions, can be customized in a corner or center layout, and can scale from an element on a web page to a large poster size. On typical displays (1024 x 1280 or 1200 x 1600 pixels), bi-level radial quantum layouts can conveniently accommodate 2-20 regions with tens or hundreds of photos per region.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kustanowitz2005Meaningful,
  author = {Kustanowitz, Jack and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Meaningful presentations of photo libraries: rationale and applications of bi-level radial quantum layouts},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {188--196},
  doi = {10.1145/1065385.1065431}
}
Norman KL, Zhao H, Shneiderman B and Golub E (2005), "Dynamic Query Chloropleth Maps for Information Seeking and Decision Making (2003)"
Abstract: Information retrieval and visualization can be combined in dynamic query systems that allow users unparalleled access to information for decision making. In this paper, we report on the development and evaluation of a dynamic query system (YMap) that displays information on a chloropleth map using double thumb sliders to select ranges of query variables. The YMap prototype is a Java-Applet that supports panning and zooming. Several usability studies were conducted on early prototypes that resulted in the current version. Applications of YMap for decision making tasks are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Norman2005Dynamic,
  author = {Norman, Kent L. and Zhao, Haixia and Shneiderman, Ben and Golub, Evan},
  title = {Dynamic Query Chloropleth Maps for Information Seeking and Decision Making (2003)},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://hdl.handle.net/1903/6505}
}
Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2005), "Show Me! Guidelines for producing recorded demonstrations", In IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing., Sept., 2005. , pp. 171 - 178.
Abstract: Although recorded demonstrations (screen capture animations with narration) have become a popular form of instruction for user interfaces, little work has been done to describe guidelines for their design. Based on our experience in several projects, we offer a starting set of guidelines for the design of visually appealing and cognitively effective recorded demonstrations. Technical guidelines encourage users to keep file sizes small, strive for universal usability, and ensure user control etc. and provide tips to achieve those goals. Content guidelines include: create short demonstrations that focus on tasks, highlight each step with auditory and visual cues, synchronize narration and animation carefully, and create demonstrations with a clear beginning, middle, and end.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant2005Show,
  author = {Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Show Me! Guidelines for producing recorded demonstrations},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing},
  year = {2005},
  pages = { 171 - 178},
  doi = {10.1109/VLHCC.2005.57}
}
Shneiderman B and Bederson BB (2005), "Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion", In Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Designing for User Experience. New York, NY, USA AIGA: American Institute of Graphic Arts.
Abstract: When faced with a challenging goal, knowledge workers need to concentrate on their tasks so that they move forward toward completion. Since frustrations, distractions, and interruptions can interfere with their smooth progress, design strategies should enable users to maintain concentration. This paper promotes awareness of this issue, reviews related work, and suggests three initial strategies: Reduce short-term and working memory load, provide information abundant interfaces, and increase automaticity.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2005Maintaining,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Bederson, Benjamin B.},
  title = {Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Designing for User Experience},
  publisher = {AIGA: American Institute of Graphic Arts},
  year = {2005}
}
Chintalapani G, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2004), "Extending the utility of treemaps with flexible hierarchy", In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation., July, 2004. , pp. 335 - 344.
Abstract: Treemaps are a visualization technique for presenting hierarchical information on two-dimensional displays. Prior implementations limit the visualization to pre-defined static hierarchies. Flexible hierarchy, a new capability of Treemap 4.0, enables users to define various hierarchies through dynamically selecting a series of data attributes so that they can discover patterns, clusters and outliers. This work describes the design and implementation issues of flexible hierarchy. It then reports on a usability study, which led to enhancements to the interface.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Chintalapani2004Extending,
  author = {Chintalapani, G. and Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Extending the utility of treemaps with flexible hierarchy},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation},
  year = {2004},
  pages = { 335 - 344},
  doi = {10.1109/IV.2004.1320166}
}
Seo J and Shneiderman B (2004), "A Rank-by-Feature Framework for Unsupervised Multidimensional Data Exploration Using Low Dimensional Projections", In IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization. , pp. 65 -72.
Abstract: Exploratory analysis of multidimensional data sets is challenging because of the difficulty in comprehending more than three dimensions. Two fundamental statistical principles for the exploratory analysis are (1) to examine each dimension first and then find relationships among dimensions, and (2) to try graphical displays first and then find numerical summaries (D.S. Moore, (1999). We implement these principles in a novel conceptual framework called the rank-by-feature framework. In the framework, users can choose a ranking criterion interesting to them and sort 1D or 2D axis-parallel projections according to the criterion. We introduce the rank-by-feature prism that is a color-coded lower-triangular matrix that guides users to desired features. Statistical graphs (histogram, boxplot, and scatterplot) and information visualization techniques (overview, coordination, and dynamic query) are combined to help users effectively traverse 1D and 2D axis-parallel projections, and finally to help them interactively find interesting features
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Seo2004Rank,
  author = {Seo, J. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {A Rank-by-Feature Framework for Unsupervised Multidimensional Data Exploration Using Low Dimensional Projections},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {65 -72},
  doi = {10.1109/INFVIS.2004.3}
}
Zhao H, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Duraiswami R (2004), "Sonification of Geo-Referended Data for Auditory Information Seeking: Design Principle and Pilot Study".
Abstract: We present an Auditory Information Seeking Principle (AISP) (gist, navigate, filter, and details-on-demand) modeled after the visual information seeking mantra [1]. We propose that data sonification designs should conform to this principle. We also present some design challenges imposed by human auditory perception characteristics. To improve blind access to georeferenced statistical data, we developed two preliminary sonifications adhering to the above AISP, an enhanced table and a spatial choropleth map. Our pilot study shows people can recognize geographic data distribution patterns on a real map with 51 geographic regions, in both designs. The study also shows evidence that AISP conforms to people's information seeking strategies. Future work is discussed, including the improvement of the choropleth map design.
BibTeX:
@misc{Zhao2004Sonification,
  author = {Haixia Zhao and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman and Ramani Duraiswami},
  title = {Sonification of Geo-Referended Data for Auditory Information Seeking: Design Principle and Pilot Study},
  year = {2004}
}
Hochheiser H, Baehrecke E, Mount S and Shneiderman B (2003), "Dynamic querying for pattern identification in microarray and genomic data", In Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.., July, 2003. Vol. 3, pp. III - 453-6 vol.3.
Abstract: Data sets involving linear ordered sequences are a recurring theme in bioinformatics. Dynamic query tools that support exploration of these data sets can be useful for identifying patterns of interest. This paper describes the use of one such tool - timesearcher - to interactively explore linear sequence data sets taken from two bioinformatics problems. Microarray time course data sets involve expression levels for large numbers of genes over multiple time points. Timesearcher can be used to interactively search these data sets for genes with expression profiles of interest. The occurrence frequencies of short sequences of DNA in aligned exons can be used to identify sequences that play a role in the pre-mRNA splicing. Timesearcher can be used to search these data sets for candidate splicing signals.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hochheiser2003Dynamic,
  author = {Hochheiser, H. and Baehrecke, E.H. and Mount, S.M. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Dynamic querying for pattern identification in microarray and genomic data},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {3},
  pages = { III - 453-6 vol.3},
  doi = {10.1109/ICME.2003.1221346}
}
Kang H, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2003), "Helping users get started with visual interfaces: multi-layered interfaces, integrated initial guidance and video demonstrations", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-1. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: We are investigating new ways to help users learn to use public access interactive tools, in particular for the visual exploration of government statistics. Our work led to a series of interfaces using multi-layered design, a new help method called Integrated Initial Guidance, and video demonstrations. Multi-layer designs structure an interface so that a simpler interface is available for users to get started and more complex features are accessed as users move through the more advanced layers. Integrated Initial Guidance provides help within the working interface, right at the start of the application. Using the metaphor of "sticky notes" overlaid on top of the functional interface locates the main widgets, demonstrates their manipulation, and explains the resulting actions using preset activations of the interface.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kang2003Helping,
  author = {Kang, Hyunmo and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Helping users get started with visual interfaces: multi-layered interfaces, integrated initial guidance and video demonstrations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--1},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123257}
}
Kang H, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2003), "New approaches to help users get started with visual interfaces: multi-layered interfaces and integrated initial guidance", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-6. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: We are investigating new ways to help users learn to use public access interactive tools, in particular for the visual exploration of government statistics. Our work led to a series of interfaces using multi-layered design and a new help method called Integrated Initial Guidance. Multi-layer designs structure an interface so that a simpler interface is available for users to get started and more complex features are accessed as users move through the more advanced layers. Integrated Initial Guidance provides help within the working interface, right at the start of the application. Using the metaphor of "sticky notes" overlaid on top of the functional interface locates the main widgets, demonstrates their manipulation, and explains the resulting actions using preset animation of the interface. Usability testing with 12 participants led to refined designs and guidelines for the design of Integrated Initial Guidance interfaces.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kang2003New,
  author = {Kang, Hyunmo and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {New approaches to help users get started with visual interfaces: multi-layered interfaces and integrated initial guidance},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--6},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123269}
}
Kules B, Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (2003), "Data exploration with paired hierarchical visualizations: initial designs of PairTrees", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-6. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: Paired hierarchical visualizations (PairTrees) integrate treemaps, node-link diagrams, choropleth maps and other information visualization techniques to support exploration of hierarchical data sets at multiple levels of abstraction. This paper describes several novel applications of PairTrees in the econometric and health statistics domains, as well as some challenges and trade-offs inherent in the technique.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kules2003Data,
  author = {Kules, Bill and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {Data exploration with paired hierarchical visualizations: initial designs of PairTrees},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--6},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123233}
}
Kules B and Shneiderman B (2003), "Designing a metadata-driven visual information browser for federal statistics", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-6. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: When looking for federal statistics, finding the right table, chart or report can be a daunting task for anyone not thoroughly familiar with the federal statistical system. Search tools help, but differing terminologies within the statistical agencies and a lack of familiarity of terms by information seekers limit their effectiveness. The FedStats Browser is a design for visually browsing federal agency statistical products and publications, using techniques that allow users to reformulate queries and iteratively refine results via simple, reversible actions with immediate feedback. This paper also discusses the characteristics of metadata needed for such a browser and the challenges inherent in acquiring that metadata.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kules2003Designing,
  author = {Kules, Bill and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing a metadata-driven visual information browser for federal statistics},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--6},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123235}
}
Marchionini G, Haas S, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Hert C (2003), "Toward a statistical knowledge network", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-6. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: This paper describes an architecture for a statistical knowledge network that depends on user interfaces as the glue among the components. These interfaces aim to serve non-expert users with diverse needs and statistical and computing experiences. Such interfaces are crucially dependent on different indexing schemes and good metadata.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Marchionini2003Toward,
  author = {Marchionini, Gary and Haas, Stephanie and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Hert, Carol},
  title = {Toward a statistical knowledge network},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--6},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123312}
}
Seo J, Bakay M, Zhao P, Chen Y-W, Clarkson P, Shneiderman B and Hoffman E (2003), "Interactive color mosaic and dendrogram displays for signal/noise optimization in microarray data analysis", In Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.., July, 2003. Vol. 3, pp. III - 461-4 vol.3.
Abstract: Data analysis and visualization is strongly influenced by noise and noise filters. There are multiple sources of "noise" in microarray data analysis, but signal/noise ratios are rarely optimized, or even considered. Here, we report a noise analysis of a novel 13 million oligonucleotide dataset - 25 human U133A ( sim;500,000 features) profiles of patient muscle biopsies. We use our recently described interactive visualization tool, the hierarchical clustering explorer (HCE) to systemically address the effect of different noise filters on resolution of arrays into "correct" biological groups (unsupervised clustering into three patient groups of known diagnosis). We varied probe set interpretation methods (MAS 5.0, RMA), "present call" filters, and clustering linkage methods, and investigated the results in HCE. HCE's interactive features enabled us to quickly see the impact of these three variables. Dendrogram displays showed the clustering results systematically, and color mosaic displays provided a visual support for the results. We show that each of these three variables has a strong effect on unsupervised clustering. For this dataset, the strength of the biological variable was maximized, and noise minimized, using MAS 5.0, 10% present call filter, and average group linkage. We propose a general method of using interactive tools to identify the optimal signal/noise balance or the optimal combination of these three variables to maximize the effect of the desired biological variable on data interpretation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Seo2003Interactive,
  author = {Jinwook Seo and Bakay, M. and Po Zhao and Yi-Wen Chen and Clarkson, P. and Shneiderman, B. and Hoffman, E.P.},
  title = {Interactive color mosaic and dendrogram displays for signal/noise optimization in microarray data analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {3},
  pages = { III - 461-4 vol.3},
  doi = {10.1109/ICME.2003.1221348}
}
Shneiderman B (2003), "Promoting universal usability with multi-layer interface design", In Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Universal Usability. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1-8. ACM.
Abstract: Increased interest in universal usability is causing some researchers to study advanced strategies for satisfying first-time as well as intermittent and expert users. This paper promotes the idea of multi-layer interface designs that enable first-time and novice users to begin with a limited set of features at layer 1. They can remain at layer 1, then move up to higher layers when needed or when they have time to learn further features. The arguments for and against multi-layer interfaces are presented with two example systems: a word processor with 8 layers and an interactive map with 3 layers. New research methods and directions are proposed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2003Promoting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Promoting universal usability with multi-layer interface design},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Universal Usability},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--8},
  doi = {10.1145/957205.957206}
}
Zhao H, Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (2003), "Improving accessibility and usability of geo-referenced statistical data", In Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 1-1. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: We demonstrate three versions of YMap, a dynamic choropleth map tool for geo-referenced statistical data explorations. More details can be found in (Zhao et al. 2003)First we present the Visual Basic desktop version. Users can quickly visualize the distribution of a data attribute on the choropleth map by shading the map using that attribute, brush the tightly coupled scatterplot, map, and detail window, formulate conjunctive queries and view the query results immediately on the map and scatterplot by adjusting the double-thumb sliders, or zoom and pan to observe data patterns in smaller or denser regions. (Screenshots can be found in (Zhao et al. 2003)).Second we present the Java applet version for Web access. Web YMap uses special color-coded raster images to ship geographic shapes to the browser, which allows varieties of sub-second fine-grained interface controls as those in the desktop version, and has the features of short initial download time, near-constant performance scalability for larger numbers of geographic objects, and download-map-segment-only-when-necessary, which potentially reduces the overall data transfer over the network. As a result, Web YMap accommodates users with slow network connections and low-end machines. It also incorporates some new features such as the histogram bars coupled with the map within the sliders, and different slider and shader scales to allow more uniform filtering effect.Third we present auditory YMap that aims at supporting blind and vision-impaired users. It presents information using synthesized spatial sound instead of via visual perceptions. Sounds of different timbres, pitches, and spatial positions are tied to the map regions, the sliders, the histograms, and the sweeping lines. The spatial sounds create the effect of a virtual US state map hung in front of the user. Users can navigate the interface using only keyboard, and explore the data set though audio perceptions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Zhao2003Improving,
  author = {Zhao, Haixia and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {Improving accessibility and usability of geo-referenced statistical data},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2003 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {1--1},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123196.1123262}
}
Ceaparu I and Shneiderman B (2002), "Improving Web-based civic information access: a case study of the 50 US states", In International Symposium on Technology and Society. , pp. 275 - 282.
Abstract: An analysis of the home pages of all fifty US states reveals great variety in key design features that influence efficacy. Some states had excessively large byte counts that would slow users connected by commonly-used 56 K modems. Many web sites had low numbers of or poorly organized links that would make it hard for citizens to find what they were interested in. Features such as search boxes, privacy policies, online help, or contact information need to be added by several states. Our analysis concludes with ten recommendations and finds many further opportunities for individual states to improve their Websites. However still greater benefits will come through collaboration among the states that would lead to consistency, appropriate tagging, and common tools.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ceaparu2002Improving,
  author = {Ceaparu, I. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Improving Web-based civic information access: a case study of the 50 US states},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Technology and Society},
  year = {2002},
  pages = { 275 - 282},
  doi = {10.1109/ISTAS.2002.1013826}
}
Keogh E, Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2002), "An Augmented Visual Query Mechanism for Finding Patterns in Time Series Data", In Flexible Query Answering Systems. Vol. 2522, pp. 240-250. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: Relatively few query tools exist for data exploration and pattern identification in time series data sets. In previous work we introduced Timeboxes . Timeboxes are rectangular, direct-manipulation queries for studying time-series datasets. We demonstrated how Timeboxes can be used to support interactive exploration via dynamic queries, along with overviews of query results and drag-and-drop support for query-by-example. In this paper, we extend our work by introducing Variable Time Timeboxes (VTT). VTTs are a natural generalization of Timeboxes, which permit the specification of queries that allow a degree of uncertainty in the time axis. We carefully motivate the need for these more expressive queries, and demonstrate the utility of our approach on several data sets.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Keogh2002Augmented,
  author = {Keogh, Eamonn and Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Carbonell, Jaime and Siekmann, Jörg and Andreasen, Troels and Christiansen, Henning and Motro, Amihai and Legind Larsen, Henrik},
  title = {An Augmented Visual Query Mechanism for Finding Patterns in Time Series Data},
  booktitle = {Flexible Query Answering Systems},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {2522},
  pages = {240-250},
  note = {10.1007/3-540-36109-X_19},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-36109-X_19}
}
Dang G, North C and Shneiderman B (2001), "Dynamic queries and brushing on choropleth maps", In Proceedings of the 5h International Conference on Information Visualisation. , pp. 757 -764.
Abstract: Users who must combine demographic, economic or other data in a geographic context are often hampered by the integration of tabular and map representations. Static, paper-based solutions limit the amount of data that can be placed on a single map or table. By providing an effective user interface, we believe that researchers, journalists, teachers, and students can explore complex data sets more rapidly and effectively. This paper presents Dynamaps, a generalized map-based information visualization tool for dynamic queries and brushing on choropleth maps. Users can use color coding to show a variable on each geographic region, and then filter out areas that do not meet the desired criteria. In addition, a scatterplot view and a details-on-demand window support overviews and specific fact-finding
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dang2001Dynamic,
  author = {Dang, G. and North, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Dynamic queries and brushing on choropleth maps},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5h International Conference on Information Visualisation},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {757 -764},
  doi = {10.1109/IV.2001.942141}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2001), "Visual Specification of Queries for Finding Patterns in Time-Series Data".
Abstract: Widespread interest in discovering features and trends in time- series has generated a need for tools that support interactive exploration.This paper introduces timeboxes: a powerful graphical, directmanipulation metaphor for the specification of queries over time-series datasets. Our TimeFinder implementation of timeboxes supports interactive formulation and modification of queries, thus speeding the process of exploring time-series data sets and guiding data mining. TimeFinder includes windows for timebox queries, individual time-series, and details-on-demand. Other features include drag-and-drop support for query-by-example and graphical envelopes for displaying the extent of the entire data set and result set from a given query. Extensions involving increased expressive power and general temporal data sets are discussed.
BibTeX:
@misc{Hochheiser2001Visual,
  author = {Harry Hochheiser and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Visual Specification of Queries for Finding Patterns in Time-Series Data},
  year = {2001},
  url = {ftp://ftp.cs.umd.edu/pub/hcil/Reports-Abstracts-Bibliography/2001-05html/2001-05.pdf}
}
Konishi M, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2001), "Enabling Commuters to Find the Best Route: An Interface for Analyzing Driving History Logs".
Abstract: This paper describes a prototype interface design for an automobile driving history log. It allows drivers to choose the best route among several alternatives for their common trips. Recorded data includes time to complete the travel, fuel consumption, and number of stops.
BibTeX:
@misc{Konishi2001Enabling,
  author = {Makoto Konishi and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Enabling Commuters to Find the Best Route: An Interface for Analyzing Driving History Logs},
  year = {2001}
}
Shneiderman B (2001), "Inventing Discovery Tools: Combining Information Visualization with Data Mining", In Discovery Science. Vol. 2226, pp. 17-28. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: The growing use of information visualization tools and data mining algorithms stems from two separate lines of research. Information visualization researchers believe in the importance of giving users an overview and insight into the data distributions, while data mining researchers believe that statistical algorithms and machine learning can be relied on to find the interesting patterns. This paper discusses two issues that influence design of discovery tools: statistical algorithms vs. visual data presentation, and hypothesis testing vs. exploratory data analysis. I claim that a combined approach could lead to novel discovery tools that preserve user control, enable more effective exploration, and promote responsibility.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Shneiderman2001Inventing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Jantke, Klaus and Shinohara, Ayumi},
  title = {Inventing Discovery Tools: Combining Information Visualization with Data Mining},
  booktitle = {Discovery Science},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2226},
  pages = {17-28},
  note = {10.1007/3-540-45650-3_4},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45650-3_4}
}
Shneiderman B and Wattenberg M (2001), "Ordered treemap layouts", In IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization. , pp. 73 -78.
Abstract: Treemaps, a space-filling method of visualizing large hierarchical data sets, are receiving increasing attention. Several algorithms have been proposed to create more useful displays by controlling the aspect ratios of the rectangles that make up a treemap. While these algorithms do improve visibility of small items in a single layout, they introduce instability over time in the display of dynamically changing data, and fail to preserve an ordering of the underlying data. This paper introduces the ordered treemap, which addresses these two shortcomings. The ordered treemap algorithm ensures that items near each other in the given order will be near each other in the treemap layout. Using experimental evidence from Monte Carlo trials, we show that compared to other layout algorithms ordered treemaps are more stable while maintaining relatively favorable aspect ratios of the constituent rectangles. A second test set uses stock market data.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2001Ordered,
  author = {Shneiderman, B. and Wattenberg, M.},
  title = {Ordered treemap layouts},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {73 -78},
  doi = {10.1109/INFVIS.2001.963283}
}
Tang L and Shneiderman B (2001), "Dynamic Aggregation to Support Pattern Discovery: A Case Study with Web Logs", In Discovery Science. Vol. 2226, pp. 464-469. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: Rapid growth of digital data collections is overwhelming the capabilities of humans to comprehend them without aid. The extraction of useful data from large raw data sets is something that humans do poorly. Aggregation is a technique that extracts important aspect from groups of data thus reducing the amount that the user has to deal with at one time, thereby enabling them to discover patterns, outliers, gaps, and clusters. Previous mechanisms for interactive exploration with aggregated data were either too complex to use or too limited in scope. This paper proposes a new technique for dynamic aggregation that can combine with dynamic queries to support most of the tasks involved in data manipulation.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Tang2001Dynamic,
  author = {Tang, Lida and Shneiderman, Ben},
  editor = {Jantke, Klaus and Shinohara, Ayumi},
  title = {Dynamic Aggregation to Support Pattern Discovery: A Case Study with Web Logs},
  booktitle = {Discovery Science},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2226},
  pages = {464-469},
  note = {10.1007/3-540-45650-3_42},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45650-3_42}
}
Christian K, Kules B, Shneiderman B and Youssef A (2000), "A comparison of voice controlled and mouse controlled web browsing", In Proceedings of the 4th Tnternational ACM conference on Assistive Technologies. New York, NY, USA , pp. 72-79. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Christian2000comparison,
  author = {Christian, Kevin and Kules, Bill and Shneiderman, Ben and Youssef, Adel},
  title = {A comparison of voice controlled and mouse controlled web browsing},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th Tnternational ACM conference on Assistive Technologies},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {72--79},
  doi = {10.1145/354324.354345}
}
Gandhi R, Kumar G, Bederson B and Shneiderman B (2000), "Domain name based visualization of Web histories in a zoomable user interface", In Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications. , pp. 591 -598.
Abstract: Users of hypertext systems like the World Wide Web (WWW) often find themselves following hypertext links deeper and deeper, only to find themselves ldquo;lost rdquo; and unable to find their way back to the previously visited pages. We have implemented a Web browser companion called Domain Tree Browser (DTB) that builds a tree structured visual navigation history while browsing the Web. The Domain Tree Browser organizes the URLs visited based on the domain name of each URL and shows thumbnails of each page in a zoomable window
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gandhi2000Domain,
  author = {Gandhi, R. and Kumar, G. and Bederson, B. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Domain name based visualization of Web histories in a zoomable user interface},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {591 -598},
  doi = {10.1109/DEXA.2000.875085}
}
Kang H and Shneiderman B (2000), "Visualization methods for personal photo collections: browsing and searching in the PhotoFinder", In IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.. Vol. 3, pp. 1539 -1542 vol.3.
Abstract: Software tools for personal photo collection management are proliferating, but they usually have limited searching and browsing functions. We implemented the PhotoFinder prototype to enable non-technical users of personal photo collections to search and browse easily. PhotoFinder provides a set of visual Boolean query interfaces, coupled with dynamic query and query preview features. It gives users powerful search capabilities. Using a scatter plot thumbnail display and drag-and-drop interface, PhotoFinder is designed to be easy to use for searching and browsing photos
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kang2000Visualization,
  author = {Hyunmo Kang and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Visualization methods for personal photo collections: browsing and searching in the PhotoFinder},
  booktitle = {IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {1539 -1542 vol.3},
  doi = {10.1109/ICME.2000.871061}
}
North C and Shneiderman B (2000), "Snap-together visualization: a user interface for coordinating visualizations via relational schemata", In Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. New York, NY, USA , pp. 128-135. ACM.
Abstract: Multiple coordinated visualizations enable users to rapidly explore complex information. However, users often need unforeseen combinations of coordinated visualizations that are appropriate for their data. Snap-Together Visualization enables data users to rapidly and dynamically mix and match visualizations and coordinations to construct custom exploration interfaces without programming. Snap's conceptual model is based on the relational database model. Users load relations into visualizations then coordinate them based on the relational joins between them. Users can create different types of coordinations such as: brushing, drill down, overview and detail view, and synchronized scrolling. Visualization developers can make their independent visualizations snap-able with a simple API. Evaluation of Snap revealed benefits, cognitive issues, and usability concerns. Data savvy users were very capable and thrilled to rapidly construct powerful coordinated visualizations. A snapped overview and detail-view coordination improved user performance by 30-80%, depending on task.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{North2000Snap,
  author = {North, Chris and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Snap-together visualization: a user interface for coordinating visualizations via relational schemata},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {128--135},
  doi = {10.1145/345513.345282}
}
Shneiderman B and Kang H (2000), "Direct annotation: a drag-and-drop strategy for labeling photos", In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization. , pp. 88 -95.
Abstract: Annotating photographs is such a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone data entry task that it discourages most owners of personal photo libraries. By allowing the user to drag labels, such as personal names, from a scrolling list and drop them onto a photo, we believe we can make the task faster, easier and more appealing. Since the names are entered in a database, searching for all photos of a friend or family member is dramatically simplified. We describe the user interface design and the database schema to support direct annotation, as implemented in our PhotoFinder prototype
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2000Direct,
  author = {Shneiderman, B. and Kang, H.},
  title = {Direct annotation: a drag-and-drop strategy for labeling photos},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {88 -95},
  doi = {10.1109/IV.2000.859742}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Supporting Creativity with Powerful Composition Tools for Artifacts and Performances", In Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Washington, DC, USA Vol. 7, pp. 7005-. IEEE Computer Society.
Abstract: Modern software such as word processors, slide preparation/presentation tools, or music composition packages are designed to produce artifacts or performances. Now, some designers are expanding their goals to include creativity support into their software. This essay builds on the genex framework for creativity, which has four phases and eight activities. It focuses on the composition activity by considering tools to support initiation, revision, and evaluation. Some existing tools provide partial support that suggests ways in which to develop more ambitious low, middle, and high level tools. The goal is to enable more people to be more creative more of the time.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2000Supporting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Supporting Creativity with Powerful Composition Tools for Artifacts and Performances},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {7005--},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=820263.820445}
}
Shneiderman B, Feldman D, Rose A and Grau XF (2000), "Visualizing digital library search results with categorical and hierarchical axes", In Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Digital Libraries. New York, NY, USA , pp. 57-66. ACM.
Abstract: Digital library search results are usually shown as a textual list, with 10-20 items per page. Viewing several thousand search results at once on a two-dimensional display with continuous variables is a promising alternative. Since these displays can overwhelm some users, we created a simplified two-dimensional display that uses categorical and hierarchical axes, called hieraxes. Users appreciate the meaningful and limited number of terms on each hieraxis. At each grid point of the display we show a cluster of color-coded dots or a bar chart. Users see the entire result set and can then click on labels to move down a level in the hierarchy. Handling broad hierarchies and arranging for imposed hierarchies led to additional design innovations. We applied hieraxes to a digital video library of science topics used by middle school teachers, a legal information system, and a technical library using the ACM Computing Classification System. Feedback from usability testing with 32 subjects revealed strengths and weaknesses.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2000Visualizing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Feldman, David and Rose, Anne and Grau, Xavier Ferré},
  title = {Visualizing digital library search results with categorical and hierarchical axes},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {57--66},
  doi = {10.1145/336597.336637}
}
Marchionini G, Hert C, Liddy L and Shneiderman B (2000), "Extending understanding of federal statistics in tables", In Proceedings of the Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research., Nov., 2000. , pp. 1-7. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: This paper describes progress toward improving user interfaces for US Federal government statistics that are presented in tables. Based on studies of user behaviors and needs related to statistical tables, we describe interfaces to assist diverse users with a range of statistical literacy to explore, find, understand, and use US Federal government statistics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Marchionini2000Extending,
  author = {Marchionini, Gary and Hert, Carol and Liddy, Liz and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Extending understanding of federal statistics in tables},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {1--7},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1123075.1123079}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2000), "Coordinating overviews and detail views of WWW log data", Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation., Nov., 2000.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2000Coordinating,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Coordinating overviews and detail views of WWW log data},
  journal = {Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation},
  year = {2000},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/2000-25/2000-25.html}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Supporting Creativity with Powerful Composition Tools for Artifacts and Performances", In Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Washington, DC, USA, Jan., 2000. Vol. 7, pp. 7005-. IEEE Computer Society.
Abstract: Modern software such as word processors, slide preparation/presentation tools, or music composition packages are designed to produce artifacts or performances. Now, some designers are expanding their goals to include creativity support into their software. This essay builds on the genex framework for creativity, which has four phases and eight activities. It focuses on the composition activity by considering tools to support initiation, revision, and evaluation. Some existing tools provide partial support that suggests ways in which to develop more ambitious low, middle, and high level tools. The goal is to enable more people to be more creative more of the time.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2000Supportinga,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Supporting Creativity with Powerful Composition Tools for Artifacts and Performances},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {7005--},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=820263.820445}
}
Fredrikson A, North C, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1999), "Temporal, geographical and categorical aggregations viewed through coordinated displays: a case study with highway incident data", In Proceedings of the 1999 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation in Conjunction with the 8th ACM Internation Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. New York, NY, USA , pp. 26-34. ACM.
Abstract: Information visualization displays can hold a limited number of data points, typically a few thousand, before they get crowded. One way to solve this problem with larger data sets is to create aggregates. Aggregations were used together with the Snap-Together Visualization system to coordinate the visual displays of aggregates and their content. If two displays each hold one thousand items then rapid access and visibility can be maintained for a million points. This paper presents examples based on a database of highway incident data.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Fredrikson1999Temporal,
  author = {Fredrikson, Anna and North, Chris and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Temporal, geographical and categorical aggregations viewed through coordinated displays: a case study with highway incident data},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1999 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation in Conjunction with the 8th ACM Internation Conference on Information and Knowledge Management},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {26--34},
  doi = {10.1145/331770.331780}
}
Harris C, Allen RB, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1999), "Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories", In Proceedings of the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Sciences. , pp. 271-279.
Abstract: This paper discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called LifeLines. The direct and indirect histories of cases can become very complex. We explored ways that LifeLines could aid in viewing the links between the original case and the direct and indirect histories. The Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company case is used to illustrate the prototype. For example, if users want to find out how the rulings or statutes changed throughout this case, they could retrieve this information within a single display. Using the timeline, users could also choose at which point in time they would like to begin viewing the case. LifeLines support various views of a case's history. For instance, users can view the trial history of a case, the references involved in a case, and citations made to a case. The paper describes improvements to LifeLines that could help in providing a more useful visualization of case history.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Harris1999Temporal,
  author = {Chanda Harris and Robert B. Allen and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Sciences},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {271--279}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (1999), "Understanding Patterns of User Visits to Web Sites: Interactive Starfield Visualizations of WWW Log Data", Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Vol. 54(4), pp. 331-343.
Abstract: HTTP server log files provide Web site operators with substantial detail regarding the visitors to their sites. Interest in interpreting this data has spawned an active market for software packages that summarize and analyze this data, providing histograms, pie graphs, and other charts summarizing usage patterns. While useful, these summaries obscure useful information and restrict users to passive interpretation of static displays.
Interactive starfield visualizations can be used to provide users with greater abilities to interpret and explore web log data. By combining two-dimensional displays of thousands of individual access requests, color and size coding for additional attributes, and facilities for zooming and filtering, these visualizations provide capabilities for examining data that exceed those of traditional web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive starfield visualizations, which can be used to explore server data across various dimensions. Possible uses of these visualizations are discussed, and difficulties of data collection, presentation, and interpretation are explored.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser1999Understanding,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Understanding Patterns of User Visits to Web Sites: Interactive Starfield Visualizations of WWW Log Data},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {54},
  number = {4},
  pages = {331--343},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.29.6551}
}
Plaisant C, Rose A, Rubloff G, Salter R and Shneiderman B (1999), "The design of history mechanisms and their use in collaborative educational simulations", In Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Abstract: Reviewing past events has been useful in many domains. Videotapes and flight data recorders provide invaluable technological help to sports coaches or aviation engineers. Similarly, providing learners with a readable recording of their actions may help them monitor their behavior, reflect on their progress, and experiment with revisions of their experiences. It may also facilitate active collaboration among dispersed learning communities. Learning histories can help students and professionals make more effective use of digital library searching, word processing tasks, computer-assisted design tools, electronic performance support systems, and web navigation.This paper describes the design space and discusses the challenges of implementing learning histories. It presents guidelines for creating effective implementations, and the design tradeoffs between sparse and dense history records. The paper also presents a first implementation of learning histories for a simulation-based engineering learning environment called SimPLE (Simulated Processes in a Learning Environment) for the case of a semiconductor fabrication module, and reports on early user evaluation of learning histories implemented within SimPLE.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant1999design,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Rose, Anne and Rubloff, Gary and Salter, Richard and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The design of history mechanisms and their use in collaborative educational simulations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning},
  publisher = {International Society of the Learning Sciences},
  year = {1999},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1150240.1150284}
}
Shneiderman B (1999), "User interfaces for creativity support tools", In Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Creativity & Cognition. New York, NY, USA , pp. 15-22. ACM.
Abstract: A challenge for human-computer interaction researchers and user interface designers is to construct information technologies that support creativity. This ambitious goal can be attained by building on an adequate understanding of creative processes. This paper expands on the four-phase genex framework for generating excellence. Within this integrated framework, this paper proposes eight activities that require human-computer interaction research and advanced user interface design.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1999User,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {User interfaces for creativity support tools},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Creativity & Cognition},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {15--22},
  doi = {10.1145/317561.317565}
}
Tse T, Vegh S, Marchionini G and Shneiderman B (1999), "An Exploratory Study of Video Browsing User Interface Designs and Research Methodologies: Effectiveness in Information Seeking Tasks", In Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science. , pp. 681-692.
Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory study is to develop research methods to compare the effectiveness of two video browsing interface designs, or surrogates one static (storyboard) and one dynamic (slide show) on two distinct information seeking tasks (gist determination and object recognition). Although video data is multimodal, potentially consisting of images, speech, sound, and text, the surrogates tested depend on image data only and use key frames or stills extracted from source video. A test system was developed to determine the effects of different key frame displays on user performance in specified information seeking tasks. The independent variables were interface display and task type. The dependent variables were task accuracy and subjective satisfaction. Covariates included spatial visual ability and time-to-completion. The study used a repeated block factorial 2x2 design; each of 20 participants interacted with all four interface-task combinations. No statistically significant results for task accuracy were found. Statistically significant differences were found, however, for user satisfaction with the display types: users assessed the static display to be "easier" to use than the dynamic display for both task types, even though there were no performance differences. This methodological approach provides a useful way to learn about the relationship between surrogate types and user tasks during video browsing.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Tse1999Exploratory,
  author = {Tse, Tony and Vegh, Sandor and Marchionini, Gary and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An Exploratory Study of Video Browsing User Interface Designs and Research Methodologies: Effectiveness in Information Seeking Tasks},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {681--692},
  url = {ftp://ftp.cs.umd.edu/pub/hcil/Reports-Abstracts-Bibliography/99-29html/99-29.html}
}
Li J, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1998), "Data object and label placement for information abundant visualizations", In Proceedings of the 1998 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation. New York, NY, USA , pp. 41-48. ACM.
Abstract: Placing numerous data objects and their corresponding labels in limited screen space is a challenging problem in information visualization systems. Extending map-oriented techniques, this paper describes static placement algorithms and develops metrics (such as compactness and labeling rate) as a basis for comparison among these algorithms. A control panel facilitates user customization by showing the metrics for alternative algorithms. Dynamic placement techniques that go beyond map-oriented techniques demonstrate additional possibilities. User actions can lead to selective display of data objects and their labels.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li1998Data,
  author = {Li, Jia and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Data object and label placement for information abundant visualizations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1998 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {41--48},
  doi = {10.1145/324332.324341}
}
Plaisant C, Mushlin R, Snyder A, Li J, Heller D and Shneiderman B (1998), "LifeLines: using visualization to enhance navigation and analysis of patient records.", Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. Vol. 08(98), pp. 76-80. American Medical Informatics Association.
Abstract: LifeLines provide a general visualization environment for personal histories. We explore its use for clinical patient records. A Java user interface is described, which presents a one-screen overview of a computerized patient record using timelines. Problems, diagnoses, test results or medications can be represented as dots or horizontal lines. Zooming provides more details; line color and thickness illustrate relationships or significance. The visual display acts as a giant menu, giving direct access to the data.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant1998LifeLines:,
  author = {Plaisant, C and Mushlin, R and Snyder, A and Li, J and Heller, D and Shneiderman, B},
  title = {LifeLines: using visualization to enhance navigation and analysis of patient records.},
  journal = {Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium},
  publisher = {American Medical Informatics Association},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {08},
  number = {98},
  pages = {76--80},
  url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2232192&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract}
}
Zhang Z, Basili V and Shneiderman B (1998), "An Empirical Study of Perspective-Based Usability Inspection", Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Vol. 42(19), pp. 1346-1350.
Abstract: Inspection is a fundamental means of achieving software usability. Past research showed that during usability inspection the success rate (percentage of problems detected) of each individual inspector was rather low. We developed perspective-based usability inspection, which divides the large variety of usability issues along different perspectives and focuses each inspection session on one perspective. We conducted a controlled experiment to study its effectiveness, using a post-test only control group experimental design, with 24 professionals as subjects. The control group used heuristic evaluation, which is the most popular technique for usability inspection. The experimental results are that 1) for usability problems covered by each perspective, the inspectors using that perspective had higher success rate than others; 2) for all usability problems, perspective inspectors had higher average success rate than heuristic inspectors; 3) for all usability problems, the union of three perspective inspectors (with one from each perspective) had higher average success rate than the union of three heuristic inspectors.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhang1998Empirical,
  author = {Zhang, Zhijun and Basili, Victor and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An Empirical Study of Perspective-Based Usability Inspection},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {42},
  number = {19},
  pages = {1346-1350},
  doi = {10.1177/154193129804201904}
}
Kandogan E and Shneiderman B (1997), "Elastic Windows: evaluation of multi-window operations", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 250-257. ACM.
Abstract: Most windowing systems follow the independent overlap- ping windows approach, which emerged as an answer to the needs of the 1980s technology. Due to advances in computers and display technology, and increased informa- tion needs, modern users demand more functionality from window management systems. We proposed Elastic Win- dows with improved spatial layout and rapid multi-window operations as an alternative to current window management strategies for efficient personal rolemanagement 12. In this approach, multi-windowoperations are achieved by issuing operations on window groups hierarchically organized in a space-filling tiled layout. This paper describes the Elastic Windows interface briefly and then presents a study compar- ing user performance with Elastic Windows and traditional window management techniques for 2, 6, and 12 window situations. Elastic Windows users had statistically signifi- cantly faster performance for all 6 and 12 windowsituations, for task environment setup, task environment switching, and task execution. For some tasks there was a ten-fold speed-up in performance. These results suggest promising possibili- ties formultiplewindowoperations and hierarchical nesting, which can be applied to the next generation of tiled as well as overlapped windowmanagers
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kandogan1997Elastic,
  author = {Kandogan, Eser and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Elastic Windows: evaluation of multi-window operations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {250--257},
  doi = {10.1145/258549.258720}
}
Kandogan E and Shneiderman B (1997), "Elastic Windows: a hierarchical multi-window World-Wide Web browser", In Proceedings of the 10th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. New York, NY, USA , pp. 169-177. ACM.
Abstract: The World-Wide Web is becoming an invaluable source for the information needs of many users. However, current browsers are still primitive, in that they do not support many of the navigation needs of users, as indicated by user studies. They do not provide an overview and a sense of location in the information structure being browsed. Also they do not facilitate organization and filtering of information nor aid users in accessing already visited pages without high cognitive demands. In this paper, a new browsing interface is proposed with multiple hierarchical windows and efficient multiple window operations. It provides a flexible environment where users can quickly organize, filter, and restructure the information on the screen as they reformulate their goals. Overviews can give the user a sense of location in the browsing history as well as provide fast access to a hierarchy of pages.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kandogan1997Elastica,
  author = {Kandogan, Eser and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Elastic Windows: a hierarchical multi-window World-Wide Web browser},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {169--177},
  doi = {10.1145/263407.263541}
}
Mahajan R and Shneiderman B (1997), "Visual and textual consistency checking tools for graphical user interfaces", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering., Nov., 1997. Vol. 23(11), pp. 722 -735.
Abstract: Designing user interfaces with consistent visual and textual properties is difficult. To demonstrate the harmful effects of inconsistency, we conducted an experiment with 60 subjects. Inconsistent interface terminology slowed user performance by 10 to 25 percent. Unfortunately, contemporary software tools provide only modest support for consistency control. Therefore, we developed SHERLOCK, a family of consistency analysis tools, which evaluates visual and textual properties of user interfaces. It provides graphical analysis tools such as a dialog box summary table that presents a compact overview of visual properties of all dialog boxes. SHERLOCK provides terminology analysis tools including an interface concordance, an interface spellchecker, and terminology baskets to check for inconsistent use of familiar groups of terms. Button analysis tools include a button concordance and a button layout table to detect variant capitalization, distinct typefaces, distinct colors, variant button sizes, and inconsistent button placements. We describe the design, software architecture, and the use of SHERLOCK. We tested SHERLOCK with four commercial prototypes. The outputs, analysis, and feedback from designers of the applications are presented
BibTeX:
@article{Mahajan1997Visual,
  author = {Mahajan, R. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Visual and textual consistency checking tools for graphical user interfaces},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {23},
  number = {11},
  pages = {722 -735},
  doi = {10.1109/32.637386}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "Direct manipulation for comprehensible, predictable and controllable user interfaces", In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. New York, NY, USA , pp. 33-39. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1997Direct,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Direct manipulation for comprehensible, predictable and controllable user interfaces},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {33--39},
  doi = {10.1145/238218.238281}
}
Slaughters L, Shneiderman B and Marchionini G (1997), "Comprehension and object recognition capabilities for presentations of simultaneous video key frame surrogates", In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries. Vol. 1324, pp. 41-54. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Abstract: The demand for more efficient browsing of video data is expected to increase as greater access to this type of data becomes available. This experiment looked at one technique for displaying video data using key frame surrogates that are presented as a slide show. Subjects viewed key frames for between one and four video clips simultaneously. Following this presentation, the subjects performed object recognition and gist comprehension tasks in order to determine human thresholds for divided attention between these multiple displays. It was our belief that subject performance would degrade as the number of slide shows shown simultaneously increased. For object recognition and gist comprehension tasks, a decrease in performance between the one slide show display and the two, three or four slide show displays was found. In the case of two or three video presentations, performance is about the same, and there remains adequate object recognition abilities and comprehension of the video clips. Performance drops off to unacceptable levels when four slide shows are displayed at once.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Slaughters1997Comprehension,
  author = {Slaughters, Laura and Shneiderman, Ben and Marchionini, Gary},
  editor = {Peters, Carol and Thanos, Costantino},
  title = {Comprehension and object recognition capabilities for presentations of simultaneous video key frame surrogates},
  booktitle = {Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {1324},
  pages = {41-54},
  note = {10.1007/BFb0026720},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BFb0026720}
}
Tanin E, Beigel R and Shneiderman B (1997), "Design and evaluation of incremental data structures and algorithms for dynamic query interfaces", In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization., Oct., 1997. , pp. 81 -86.
Abstract: A dynamic query interface (DQI) is a database access mechanism that provides continuous real-time feedback to the user during query formulation. Previous work shows that DQIs are elegant and powerful interfaces to small databases. Unfortunately, when applied to large databases, previous DQI algorithms slow to a crawl. We present a new incremental approach to DQI algorithms and display updates that work well with large databases, both in theory and in practice.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Tanin1997Design,
  author = {Tanin, E. and Beigel, R. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Design and evaluation of incremental data structures and algorithms for dynamic query interfaces},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {81 -86},
  doi = {10.1109/INFVIS.1997.636790}
}
Donn K, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1996), "Query previews in networked information systems", In Proceedings of the Third Forum on Research and Technology Advances in Digital Libraries., May, 1996. , pp. 120 -129.
Abstract: In a networked information system (such as the NASA Earth Observing System-Data Information System (EOS-DIS)), there are three major obstacles facing users in a querying process: network performance, data volume and data complexity. In order to overcome these obstacles, we propose a two phase approach to query formulation. The two phases are the Query Preview and the Query Refinement. In the Query Preview phase, users formulate an initial query by selecting rough attribute values. The estimated number of matching data sets is shown, graphically on preview bars which allows users to rapidly focus on a manageable number of relevant data sets. Query previews also prevent wasted steps by eliminating zero hit queries. When the estimated number of data sets is long enough, the initial query is submitted to the network which returns the metadata of the data sets for further refinement in the Query Refinement phase. The two phase approach to query formulation overcomes slow network performance, and reduces the data volume and data complexity, problems. This approach is especially appropriate for users who do not have extensive knowledge about the data and who prefer an exploratory method to discover data patterns and exceptions. Using this approach, we have developed dynamic query user interfaces to allow users to formulate their queries across a networked environment
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Donn1996Query,
  author = {Donn, K. and Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Query previews in networked information systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Third Forum on Research and Technology Advances in Digital Libraries},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {120 -129},
  doi = {10.1109/ADL.1996.502522}
}
Kandogan E and Shneiderman B (1996), "Elastic windows: improved spatial layout and rapid multiple window operations", In Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces. New York, NY, USA , pp. 29-38. ACM.
Abstract: Most windowing systems follow the independent overlapping windows approach, which emerged as an answer to the needs of the 80s' application and technology. Advances in computers, display technology, and the applications demand more functionality from window management systems. Based on these changes and the problems of current windowing appraoches, we have updated the requirements for multiwindow systems to guide new methods of window management. We propose elastic windows with improved spatial layout and rapid multi-window operations. Multi-window operations are achieved by issuing operations on window groups hierachically organized in a space-filling tiled layout. Sophisticated multi-window operations and spatial layout dynamics helps users to handle fast task-switching and to structure thier work environment to their rapidly changing needs. We claim that these multi-window operations and the improved spatial layout decrease the cognitive load on users. Users found our prototype system to be comprehensible and enjoyable as they playfully explored the way multiple windows are reshaped.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kandogan1996Elastic,
  author = {Kandogan, Eser and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Elastic windows: improved spatial layout and rapid multiple window operations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {29--38},
  doi = {10.1145/948449.948454}
}
North C, Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (1996), "User controlled overviews of an image library: a case study of the visible human", In Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries. New York, NY, USA , pp. 74-82. ACM.
Abstract: This paper proposes a user interface for remote access of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human digital image library. Users can visualize the library, browse contents, locate data of interest, and retrieve desired images. The interface presents a pair of tightly coupled views into the library data. The overview image provides a global view of the overall search space, and the preview image provides details about high resolution images available for retrieval. To explore, the user sweeps the views through the search space and receives smooth, rapid, visual feedback of contents. Desired images are automatically downloaded over the internet from the library. Library contents are indexed by meta-data consisting of automatically generated miniature visuals. The interface software is completely functional and freely available for public use, at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{North1996User,
  author = {North, Chris and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {User controlled overviews of an image library: a case study of the visible human},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {74--82},
  doi = {10.1145/226931.226946}
}
Plaisant C, Milash B, Rose A, Widoff S and Shneiderman B (1996), "LifeLines: visualizing personal histories", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground. New York, NY, USA , pp. 221-227. ACM.
Abstract: LifeLines provide a general visualization environment for personal histories that can be applied to medical and court records, professional histories and other types of biographical data. A one screen overview shows multiple facets of the records. Aspects, for example medical conditions or legal cases, are displayed as individual time lines, while icons indicate discrete events, such as physician consultations or legal reviews. Line color and thickness illustrate relationships or significance, rescaling tools and filters allow users to focus on part of the information. LifeLines reduce the chances of missing information, facilitate spotting anomalies and trends, streamline access to details, while remaining tailorable and easily transferable between applications. The paper describes the use of LifeLines for youth records of the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice and also for medical records. User's feedback was collected using a Visual Basic prototype for the youth record.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant1996LifeLines:,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Milash, Brett and Rose, Anne and Widoff, Seth and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {LifeLines: visualizing personal histories},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {221--227},
  doi = {10.1145/238386.238493}
}
Shneiderman B (1996), "The eyes have it: a task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations", In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages., Sep., 1996. , pp. 336 -343.
Abstract: A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the visual information seeking Mantra: overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. The paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data types (one, two, three dimensional data, temporal and multi dimensional data, and tree and network data) and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts)
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1996eyes,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {The eyes have it: a task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {336 -343},
  doi = {10.1109/VL.1996.545307}
}
Shneiderman B and Rose A (1996), "Social impact statements: engaging public participation in information technology design", In Proceedings of the Symposium on Computers and the Quality of Life. New York, NY, USA , pp. 90-96. ACM.
Abstract: Computers have become an integral part of our everyday lives. Banks, airlines, motor vehicle administrations, police departments, Social Security, and the Internal Revenue Service all depend on computers. From their introduction, people have questioned the impact computers will have on society. We believe it is our responsibility as system designers to achieve organizational goals while serving human needs and11 protecting individual rights. The proposed Social Impact Statements (Shneiderman, 1990) would identify the impacts of information systems on direct and indirect users, who may be employees or the public. This paper proposes a framework for implementing Social Impact Statements for federal and local government agencies and regulated industries, with optional participation by the other privately held corporations. A Social Impact Statement should describe the new system and its benefits, acknowledge concerns and potential barriers, outline the development process, and address fundamental principles. Examples from our work with the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice are offered.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1996Social,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Rose, Anne},
  title = {Social impact statements: engaging public participation in information technology design},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Symposium on Computers and the Quality of Life},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {90--96},
  doi = {10.1145/238339.238378}
}
Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1995), "Organization overviews and role management: inspiration for future desktop environments", In Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises., April, 1995. , pp. 14 -22.
Abstract: In our exploration of future work environments for the World Bank we proposed two concepts. First, organization overviews provide a consistent support to present the results of a variety of manual or semi-automated searches. Second this view can be adapted or expanded for each class of users to finally map the multiple personal roles an individual has in an organization. After command line interfaces, graphical user interfaces, and the current ldquo;docu-centric rdquo; designs, a natural direction is towards a role-centered approach where we believe the emphasis is on the management of those multiple roles. Large visual overviews of the organization can be rapidly manipulated and zoomed in on to reveal the multiple roles each individual plays. Each role involves coordination with groups of people and accomplishment of tasks within a schedule
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant1995Organization,
  author = {Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Organization overviews and role management: inspiration for future desktop environments},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {14 -22},
  doi = {10.1109/ENABL.1995.484544}
}
Rose A, Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (1995), "An applied ethnographic method for redesigning user interfaces", In Proceedings of the 1st conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques. New York, NY, USA , pp. 115-122. ACM.
Abstract: Methods for observing software users in the workplace will become increasingly important as the number of people using computers grows and developers improve existing systems. Successful redesigns rely, in part, on complete and accurate evaluations of the existing systems. Based on our evaluation experience, we have derived a set of practical guidelines to be used by designers in preparing for the evaluation, performing the field study, analyzing the data, and reporting the findings. By providing a general framework based on ethnographic research, we hope to reduce the likelihood of some common problems, such as overlooking important information and misinterpreting observations. Examples from our ongoing work with the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice are used to illustrate the proposed guidelines.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Rose1995applied,
  author = {Rose, Anne and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {An applied ethnographic method for redesigning user interfaces},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {115--122},
  doi = {10.1145/225434.225447}
}
Slaughter L, Norman KL and Shneiderman B (1995), "Assessing users? subjective satisfaction with the Information System for Youth Services (ISYS)", Proceedings of Mid Atlantic Human Factors Conference, Blacksburg., Mar., 1995. Vol. 23, pp. 164-170. University of Maryland.
Abstract: In this investigation, the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS 5.5), a tool for assessing users' subjective satisfaction with specific aspects of the human/computer interface was used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Information System for Youth Services (ISYS). ISYS is used by over 600 employees of the Maryland State Department of Juvenile Services (DJS) as a tracking device for juvenile offenders. Ratings and comments were collected from 254 DJS employees who use ISYS. The overall mean rating across all questions was 5.1 on a one to nine scale. The ten highest and lowest rated questions were identified. The QUIS allowed us to isolate subgroups which were compared with mean ratings from four measures of specific interface factors. The comments obtained from users provided suggestions, complaints and endorsements of the system.
BibTeX:
@article{Slaughter1995Assessing,
  author = {Slaughter, L and Norman, K L and Shneiderman, B},
  title = {Assessing users? subjective satisfaction with the Information System for Youth Services (ISYS)},
  journal = {Proceedings of Mid Atlantic Human Factors Conference, Blacksburg},
  publisher = {University of Maryland},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {164--170},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/95-09/95-09.html}
}
Ahlberg C and Shneiderman B (1994), "The alphaslider: a compact and rapid selector", In Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 226-. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ahlberg1994alphaslider:,
  author = {Ahlberg, Christopher and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The alphaslider: a compact and rapid selector},
  booktitle = {Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {226--},
  doi = {10.1145/259963.260406}
}
Ahlberg C and Shneiderman B (1994), "Visual information seeking: tight coupling of dynamic query filters with starfield displays", In Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 222-. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ahlberg1994Visual,
  author = {Ahlberg, Christopher and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visual information seeking: tight coupling of dynamic query filters with starfield displays},
  booktitle = {Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {222--},
  doi = {10.1145/259963.260390}
}
Jain V and Shneiderman B (1994), "Data structures for dynamic queries: an analytical and experimental evaluation", In Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1-11. ACM.
Abstract: Dynamic Queries is a querying technique for doing range search on multi-key data sets. It is a direct manipulation mechanism where the query is formulated using graphical widgets and the results are displayed graphically preferably within 100 milliseconds.This paper evaluates four data structures, the multilist, the grid file, k-d tree and the quad tree used to organize data in high speed storage for dynamic queries. The effect of factors like size, distribution and dimensionality of data on the storage overhead and the speed of search is explored. Analytical models for estimating the storage and the search overheads are presented, and verified to be correct by empirical data. Results indicate that multilists are suitable for small (few thousand points) data sets irrespective of the data distribution. For large data sets the grid files are excellent for uniformly distributed data, and trees are good for skewed data distributions. There was no significant difference in performance between the tree structures.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Jain1994Data,
  author = {Jain, Vinit and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Data structures for dynamic queries: an analytical and experimental evaluation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {1--11},
  doi = {10.1145/192309.192313}
}
Jog N and Shneiderman B (1994), "Starfield Information Visualization with Interactive Smooth Zooming", Proceedings of IFIP 26 Visual Databases Systems. (CS-TR-3286), pp. 1-10.
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and implementation of interactive smooth zooming of a starfield display (which is a visualization of a multi-attribute database) and introduces the zoom bar, a new widget for zooming and panning. Whereas traditional zoom techniques are based on zooming towards or away from a focal point, this paper introduces a novel approach based on zooming towards or away from a fixed line. Starfield displays plot items from a database as small selectable glyphs using two of the ordinal attributes of the data as the variables along the display axes. One way of filtering this visual information is by changing the range of displayed values on either of the display axes. If this is done incrementally and smoothly, the starfield display appears to zoom in and out, and users can track the motion of the glyphs without getting disoriented by sudden, large changes in context.
BibTeX:
@article{Jog1994Starfield,
  author = {Jog, Ninad and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Starfield Information Visualization with Interactive Smooth Zooming},
  journal = {Proceedings of IFIP 26 Visual Databases Systems},
  year = {1994},
  number = {CS-TR-3286},
  pages = {1--10},
  url = {citeseer.ist.psu.edu/jog95starfield.html}
}
Shneiderman B and Plaisant C (1994), "The future of graphic user interfaces: personal role managers", In Proceedings of the Conference on People and Computers. New York, NY, USA , pp. 3-8. Cambridge University Press.
Abstract: Personal computer users typically manage hundreds of directories and thousands of files with hierarchically structured file managers, plus archaic cluttered-desktop window managers, and iconic representations of applications. These users must deal with the annoying overhead of window housekeeping and the greater burden of mapping their organizational roles onto the unnecessarily rigid hierarchy. An alternate approach is presented, Personal Role Manager (PRM), to structure the screen layout and the interface tools to better match the multiple roles that individuals have in an organization. Each role has a vision statement, schedule, hierarchy of tasks, set of people, and collection of documents.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1994future,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine},
  title = {The future of graphic user interfaces: personal role managers},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on People and Computers},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {3--8},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=211382.211383}
}
Ahlberg C and Shneiderman B (1994), "The alphaslider: a compact and rapid selector", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Celebrating Interdependence. New York, NY, USA, April, 1994. , pp. 365-371. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ahlberg1994alphaslider:a,
  author = {Ahlberg, Christopher and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The alphaslider: a compact and rapid selector},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Celebrating Interdependence},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {365--371},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/191666.191790},
  doi = {10.1145/191666.191790}
}
Shneiderman B, Rosenfeld A, Marchionini G, Holliday WG, Ricart G, Faloutsos C and Dick JP (1994), "QUEST - Query Environment for Science Teaching", Proc. of Digital Libraries, Texas A&M Univ., College Station., June, 1994. , pp. 74-79.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1994QUEST,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Rosenfeld, Azriel and Marchionini, Gary and Holliday, William G. and Ricart, Glenn and Faloutsos, Christos and Dick, Judith P.},
  title = {QUEST - Query Environment for Science Teaching},
  journal = {Proc. of Digital Libraries, Texas A&M Univ., College Station},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {74-79},
  url = {http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/DL94/paper/shneiderman.html}
}
Ahlberg C, Williamson C and Shneiderman B (1992), "Dynamic queries for information exploration: an implementation and evaluation", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 619-626. ACM.
Abstract: We designed, implemented and evaluated a new concept for direct manipulation of databases, called dynamic queries, that allows users to formulate queries with graphical widgets, such as sliders. By providing a graphical visualization of the database and search results, users can find trends and exceptions easily. Eighteen undergraduate chemistry students performed statistically significantly faster using a dynamic queries interface compared to two interfaces both providing form fill-in as input method, one with graphical visualization output and one with all-textual output. The interfaces were used to explore the periodic table of elements and search on their properties.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ahlberg1992Dynamic,
  author = {Ahlberg, Christopher and Williamson, Christopher and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Dynamic queries for information exploration: an implementation and evaluation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {619--626},
  doi = {10.1145/142750.143054}
}
Liao H, Maryl UO and Osada M (1992), "Browsing Unix Directories With Dynamic Queries: An Evaluation of Three Information Display Techniques", In Proceedings of the 9th Japanese Symposium on Human Interface. , pp. 95-98. Thomas.
Abstract: We designed, implemented, and evaluated an innovative concept for dynamic queries which involves the direct manipulation of small databases. Our domain was directories in a Unix file system. Dynamic queries allow users to formulate queries and explore the databases with graphical widgets, such as sliders and buttons, without requiring them to have any knowledge about the underlying structure of the database query languages, or command language syntax. Three interfaces for presenting directories were developed and tested with eighteen subjects in a within-subject design. The results of the formative evaluation yielded some useful guidelines for software designers.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Liao1992Browsing,
  author = {Holmes Liao and U. Of Maryl and Masakazu Osada},
  title = {Browsing Unix Directories With Dynamic Queries: An Evaluation of Three Information Display Techniques},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Japanese Symposium on Human Interface},
  publisher = {Thomas},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {95--98}
}
Williamson C and Shneiderman B (1992), "The dynamic HomeFinder: evaluating dynamic queries in a real-estate information exploration system", In Proceedings of the 15th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. New York, NY, USA , pp. 338-346. ACM.
Abstract: We designed, implemented, and evaluated a new concept for visualizing and searching databases utilizing direct manipulation called dynamic queries. Dynamic queries allow users to formulate queries by adjusting graphical widgets, such as sliders, and see the results immediately. By providing a graphical visualization of the database and search results, users can find trends and exceptions easily. User testing was done with eighteen undergraduate students who performed significantly faster using a dynamic queries interface compared to both a natural language system and paper printouts. The interfaces were used to explore a real-estate database and find homes meeting specific search criteria.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Williamson1992dynamic,
  author = {Williamson, Christopher and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The dynamic HomeFinder: evaluating dynamic queries in a real-estate information exploration system},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {338--346},
  doi = {10.1145/133160.133216}
}
Botafogo RA and Shneiderman B (1991), "Identifying aggregates in hypertext structures", In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual ACM Conference on Hypertext. New York, NY, USA , pp. 63-74. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Botafogo1991Identifying,
  author = {Botafogo, Rodrigo A. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Identifying aggregates in hypertext structures},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd Annual ACM Conference on Hypertext},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {63--74},
  doi = {10.1145/122974.122981}
}
Johnson B and Shneiderman B (1991), "Tree-maps: a space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures", In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Visualization., Oct., 1991. , pp. 284 -291.
Abstract: A method for visualizing hierarchically structured information is described. The tree-map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information. Tree-maps can depict both the structure and content of the hierarchy. However, the approach is best suited to hierarchies in which the content of the leaf nodes and the structure of the hierarchy are of primary importance, and the content information associated with internal nodes is largely derived from their children
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Johnson1991Tree,
  author = {Johnson, B. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Tree-maps: a space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Visualization},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {284 -291},
  doi = {10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175815}
}
Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (1991), "Scheduling on-off home control devices", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Reaching Through Technology. New York, NY, USA , pp. 459-460. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Plaisant1991Scheduling,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Scheduling on-off home control devices},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Reaching Through Technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {459--460},
  doi = {10.1145/108844.109002}
}
Shneiderman B (1991), "Visual user interfaces for information exploration" Vol. 28, pp. 379-384.
Abstract: The next generation of database management, directory browsing, information retrieval, hypermedia, scientific data management, and library systems can enable convenient exploration of growing information spaces by a wider range of users. User interface designers can provide more powerful search techniques, more comprehensible query facilities, better presentation methods, and smoother integration of technology with task. This paper offers novel graphical and direct manipulation approaches to query formulation and information presentation/manipulation. These approaches include a graphical approach to restricted boolean query formulation based on generalization/aggregation hierarchies, a filter/flow metaphor for complete boolean expressions, dynamic query methods with continuous visual presentation of results as the query is changed (possibly employing parallel computation), and color-coded 2-dimensional space-filling tree-maps that present multiple-level hierarchies in a single display (hundreds of directories and more than a thousand files can be seen at once).
BibTeX:
@inbook{Shneiderman1991Visual,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visual user interfaces for information exploration},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {379--384}
}
Sears A, Kochavy Y and Shneiderman B (1990), "Touchscreen field specification for public access database queries: let your fingers do the walking", In Proceedings of the 1990 ACM Annual Conference on Cooperation. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1-7. ACM.
Abstract: Database query is becoming a common task in public access systems; touchscreens can provide an appealing interface for such a system. This paper explores three interfaces for constructing queries on alphabetic field values with a touchscreen interface; including a QWERTY keyboard, an Alphabetic keyboard, and a Reduced Input Data Entry (RIDE) interface. The RIDE interface allows field values to be entered with fewer “keystrokes” (touches) than either keyboard while eliminating certain errors. In one test database, the RIDE interface required 69% fewer keystrokes than either keyboard interface.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sears1990Touchscreen,
  author = {Sears, Andrew and Kochavy, Yoram and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Touchscreen field specification for public access database queries: let your fingers do the walking},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1990 ACM Annual Conference on Cooperation},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {10.1145/100348.100349}
}
Shneiderman B (1990), "Human values and the future of technology: a declaration of empowerment", SIGCAS Computer Society. New York, NY, USA, Aug., 1990. Vol. 20, pp. 1-6. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1990Human,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Human values and the future of technology: a declaration of empowerment},
  journal = {SIGCAS Computer Society},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {1--6},
  doi = {10.1145/97351.97360}
}
Callahan J, Hopkins D, Weiser M and Shneiderman B (1988), "An empirical comparison of pie vs. linear menus", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 95-100. ACM.
Abstract: Menus are largely formatted in a linear fashion listing items from the top to bottom of the screen or window. Pull down menus are a common example of this format. Bitmapped computer displays, however, allow greater freedom in the placement, font, and general presentation of menus. A pie menu is a format where the items are placed along the circumference of a circle at equal radial distances from the center. Pie menus gain over traditional linear menus by reducing target seek time, lowering error rates by fixing the distance factor and increasing the target size in Fitts's Law, minimizing the drift distance after target selection, and are, in general, subjectively equivalent to the linear style.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Callahan1988empirical,
  author = {Callahan, J. and Hopkins, D. and Weiser, M. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {An empirical comparison of pie vs. linear menus},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {95--100},
  doi = {10.1145/57167.57182}
}
Potter RL, Weldon LJ and Shneiderman B (1988), "Improving the accuracy of touch screens: an experimental evaluation of three strategies", In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 27-32. ACM.
Abstract: A study comparing the speed, accuracy, and user satisfaction of three different touch screen strategies was performed. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the merits of the more intricate touch strategies that are possible on touch screens that return a continuous stream of touch data. The results showed that a touch strategy providing continuous feedback until a selection was confirmed had fewer errors than other touch strategies. The implications of the results for touch screens containing small, densely-packed targets were discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Potter1988Improving,
  author = {Potter, R. L. and Weldon, L. J. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Improving the accuracy of touch screens: an experimental evaluation of three strategies},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {27--32},
  doi = {10.1145/57167.57171}
}
Margono S and Shneiderman B (1987), "A Study of File Manipulation by Novices Using Commands vs. Direct Manipulation", In Sparks of Innovation in HumanComputer Interaction. , pp. 39-50.
Abstract: There are three basic interactive styles of control in human interfaces with computers: command, menu, and direct manipulation. In the past few years, these three styles have become the subject of many studies. However, few comparisons have been done between interfaces that use direct manipulation and command styles. This experiment compares file manipulation operations on the Apple Macintosh, which has a direct manipulation interface, with the IBM PC with MS-DOS, which has the command interface. After a brief training period, novices accomplished file manipulation tasks more rapidly, with fewer errors and greater satisfaction with the Apple Macintosh. Problems arising for both versions are discussed and suggestions for improvements are made.
BibTeX:
@inbook{Margono1987Study,
  author = {Margono, Sepeedeh and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A Study of File Manipulation by Novices Using Commands vs. Direct Manipulation},
  booktitle = {Sparks of Innovation in HumanComputer Interaction},
  year = {1987},
  pages = {39--50},
  url = {http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/margono87study.html}
}
Shneiderman B (1987), "User interface design for the Hyperties electronic encyclopedia (panel session)", In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext. New York, NY, USA , pp. 189-194. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1987User,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {User interface design for the Hyperties electronic encyclopedia (panel session)},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1987},
  pages = {189--194},
  doi = {10.1145/317426.317441}
}
Wallace DF, Anderson NS and Shneiderman B (1987), "Time Stress Effects on Two Menu Selection Systems", Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Vol. 31(7), pp. 727-731.
Abstract: The optimal number of menu items per display screen has been the topic of considerable debate and study. On the one hand, some designers have packed many items into each menu to conserve space and reduce the number of menus, whereas on the other hand there are designers who prefer a sparse display for menu structures and other videotex information. This study evaluated the effects of a broad/shallow menu compared to a narrow/deep menu structure under two conditions of time stress for inexperienced users. Results indicated that time stress both slowed performance, and increased errors. In addition, it was demonstrated that the broad/shallow menu was faster and resulted in fewer errors. Implications for menu design are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Wallace1987Time,
  author = {Wallace, Daniel F. and Anderson, Nancy S. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Time Stress Effects on Two Menu Selection Systems},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {31},
  number = {7},
  pages = {727-731},
  doi = {10.1177/154193128703100708}
}
Shneiderman B (1986), "Seven plus or minus two central issues in human-computer interaction", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, April, 1986. Vol. 17, pp. 343-349. ACM.
Abstract: This paper offers seven issues and specific challenges for researchers and developers of human-computer interaction. These issues are: interaction styles, input techniques, output organization, response time, error handling, individual differences, explanatory and predictive theories.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1986Seven,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Seven plus or minus two central issues in human-computer interaction},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {343--349},
  doi = {10.1145/22339.22394}
}
Weldon LJ, Koved L and Shneiderman B (1985), "The Structure of Information in Online and Paper Technical Manuals", Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Vol. 29(12), pp. 1110-1113.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to compare online computer manuals to paper manuals. For each type of manual there were two different database structures – a linear (sequential) structure and a tree structure. The results showed that people using the paper manuals were faster at performing a switch setting task based on information in the manual than were people using the online manuals. No significant differences were found in speed of performance between the linear and tree structures. Nor were there any differences in the number of correct switch settings for the different types of manuals. The subjective evaluation data revealed that the online manuals were rated as better and judged to be more organized than the paper manuals.
BibTeX:
@article{Weldon1985Structure,
  author = {Weldon, Linda J. and Koved, Larry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The Structure of Information in Online and Paper Technical Manuals},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {29},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1110-1113},
  doi = {10.1177/154193128502901207}
}
Shneiderman B and Thomas G (1982), "Automatic database system conversion: schema revision, data translation, and source-to-source program transformation", In Proceedings of the National Computer Conference. New York, NY, USA, June, 1982. , pp. 579-587. ACM.
Abstract: Changing data requirements present database administrators with a difficult problem: the revision of the schema, the translation of the stored database, and the conversion of the numerous application programs. This paper describes an automatic database system conversion facility which provides one approach for coping with this problem. The Pure Definition Language and the Pure Manipulation Language have been designed to facilitate the conversions specified in the Pure Transformation Language. Two conversions and their effect on retrievals are demonstrated.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1982Automatic,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Thomas, Glenn},
  title = {Automatic database system conversion: schema revision, data translation, and source-to-source program transformation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the National Computer Conference},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {579--587},
  doi = {10.1145/1500774.1500849}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "Teaching software psychology experimentation through team projects", In Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 299-301. ACM.
Abstract: This paper describes an undergraduate human factors course which emphasizes psychologically oriented experimentation on the human use of computers. The reductionist principles of the scientific method are emphasized throughout the course: lucid statement of testable hypotheses, alteration of independent variables, measurement of dependent variables, selection and assignment of subjects, control for biasing, and statistical testing. Term-length team projects are highly motivating for students and have led to worthwhile research contributions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1982Teaching,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Teaching software psychology experimentation through team projects},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {299--301},
  doi = {10.1145/800049.801799}
}
Stevens P and Shneiderman B (1981), "Exploratory research on training aids for naive users of interactive systems" Learned information ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Stevens1981Exploratory,
  author = {Stevens, P and Shneiderman, B},
  title = {Exploratory research on training aids for naive users of interactive systems},
  publisher = {Learned information ltd},
  year = {1981}
}
Shneiderman B (1980), "Natural vs. precise concise languages for human operation of computers: research issues and experimental approaches", In Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics. Stroudsburg, PA, USA , pp. 139-141. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Abstract: This paper raises concerns that natural language front ends for computer systems can limit a researcher's scope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems, and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternative modes of computer use are suggested and the role of psychologically oriented controlled experimentation is emphasized. Research methods and recent experimental results are briefly reviewed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1980Natural,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Natural vs. precise concise languages for human operation of computers: research issues and experimental approaches},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics},
  publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
  year = {1980},
  pages = {139--141},
  doi = {10.3115/981436.981478}
}
Shneiderman B and Thomas G (1980), "Path expressions for complex queries and automatic database program conversion", In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases. Vol. 6, pp. 33-44. VLDB Endowment.
Abstract: Our efforts to develop an automatic database system conversion facility yielded a powerful, yet simple query language which was designed for ease of conversion. The path expression of this query language is a convenient and appealing notation for describing complex traversals with multiple boolean qualifications. This paper describes the path expression, shows how automatic conversions can be done, introduces the boolean functions as part of the basic path expression, offers four extensions (path macros, implied path, path replacement, and path optimization), and discusses some implementation issues.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1980Path,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Thomas, Glenn},
  title = {Path expressions for complex queries and automatic database program conversion},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases},
  publisher = {VLDB Endowment},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {33--44},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1286887.1286891}
}
Shneiderman B and Mayer R (1979), "Syntactic/semantic interactions in programmer behavior: A model and experimental results", International Journal of Parallel Programming. Vol. 8, pp. 219-238. Springer Netherlands.
Abstract: This paper presents a cognitive framework for describing behaviors involved in program composition, comprehension, debugging, modification, and the acquisition of new programming concepts, skills, and knowledge. An information processing model is presented which includes a long-term store of semantic and syntactic knowledge, and a working memory in which problem solutions are constructed. New experimental evidence is presented to support the model of syntactic/semantic interaction.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1979Syntactic/semantic,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Mayer, Richard},
  title = {Syntactic/semantic interactions in programmer behavior: A model and experimental results},
  journal = {International Journal of Parallel Programming},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {219-238},
  note = {10.1007/BF00977789},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00977789}
}
Taylor R, Fry J, Shneiderman B, Smith D and Su S (1979), "Database Program Conversion: A Framework For Research", In 5th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases., Oct., 1979. , pp. 299 - 312.
Abstract: As requirements change, database administrators come under pressure to change the schema which is a description of the database structure. Although writing a new schema is a relatively easy job and transforming the database to match the schema can be accomplished with a modest effort, transforming the numerous programs which operate on the database often requires enormous effort. This interim report describes previous research, defines the problem and proposes a framework for research on the automatic conversion of database programs to match the schema transformations. The approach is based on a precise description of the data structures, integrity constraints, and permissible operations. This work will help designers of manual and computer aided conversion facilities, database administrators who are considering conversions and developers of future database management systems, which will have ease of conversion as a design goal.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Taylor1979Database,
  author = {Taylor, R.W. and Fry, J.P. and Shneiderman, B. and Smith, D.C.P. and Su, S.Y.W.},
  title = {Database Program Conversion: A Framework For Research},
  booktitle = {5th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases},
  year = {1979},
  pages = { 299 - 312},
  doi = {10.1109/VLDB.1979.718145}
}
Shneiderman B (1978), "A Framework for Automatic Conversion of Network Database Programs Under Schema Transformations.", In Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology. , pp. 279-288.
Abstract: Changing data requirements present database administrators with a difficult problem: the revision of the schema, the translation of the stored database, and the conversion of the numerous application programs. This paper describes an automatic database system conversion facility which provides one approach for coping with this problem. The Pure Definition Language and the Pure Manipulation Language have been designed to facilitate the conversions specified in the Pure Transformation Language. Two conversions and their effect on retrievals are demonstrated.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1978Framework,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {A Framework for Automatic Conversion of Network Database Programs Under Schema Transformations.},
  booktitle = {Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology},
  year = {1978},
  pages = {279-288}
}
Anderson N and Shneiderman B (1977), "Use of peer ratings in evaluating computer program quality", In Proceedings of the 15th Annual SIGCPR Conference. New York, NY, USA , pp. 218-226. ACM.
Abstract: Peer review techniques can be useful tools for supplementing programmer education, improving cooperation and communication within programming teams, and providing programmer self-evaluation. This paper will explore the benefits of peer review for practicing professional programmers and describe a framework for administration of an annual or semi-annual peer review process.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Anderson1977Use,
  author = {Anderson, Nancy and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Use of peer ratings in evaluating computer program quality},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Annual SIGCPR Conference},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1977},
  pages = {218--226},
  doi = {10.1145/800100.803247}
}
Shneiderman B (1977), "Evaluating introductory programming textbooks: A guide for students, instructors, authors and publishers", SIGCSE Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Feb., 1977. Vol. 9, pp. 56-58. ACM.
Abstract: My father counseled me not to give advice to others. Inspite of that admonition, I have an irrepressible desire to make some highly subjective, potentially pompous remarks about introductory programming language textbooks. During the past nine years I have evaluated dozens of manuscripts for eight publishers and hundreds of books for teaching term-length introductory courses in FORTRAN, BASIC, PL/I, PASCAL, COBOL and assembly languages. I have co-authored two FORTRAN texts and developed two independent study guides to programming. Each time I see a text, I make judgments by reacting to the material, rather than by comparing the material to a pre-determined set of criteria. In order to provide a “structured” review process (no computer-science oriented paper is complete without a reference to “structure”), I offer the following criteria for evaluating texts. This list is far from complete, but it is a beginning.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1977Evaluating,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Evaluating introductory programming textbooks: A guide for students, instructors, authors and publishers},
  journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {56--58},
  doi = {10.1145/382175.803434}
}
Buck J and Shneiderman B (1976), "An internship in information systems: Combining computer science education with realistic problems", SIGCSE Bull.. New York, NY, USA, July, 1976. Vol. 8, pp. 80-83. ACM.
Abstract: Computer science graduates who become professional programmers will have a direct and substantial influence on the impact of applications, but little in traditional computer science training curriculum prepares them for this serious responsibility. Recognizing this situation, we designed a two term sequence for advanced undergraduates and masters students which would not only provide them with the required academic knowledge. The educational atmosphere that we tried to create resembles the internship phase followed in teacher training, medical schools, law schools, clinical psychology and other disciplines.
BibTeX:
@article{Buck1976internship,
  author = {Buck, John and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {An internship in information systems: Combining computer science education with realistic problems},
  journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {80--83},
  doi = {10.1145/952991.804761}
}
Shneiderman B and McKay D (1976), "Experimental Investigations of Computer Program Debugging and Modification", Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Vol. 20(24), pp. 557-563.
Abstract: Although greater emphasis is placed on the task of computer program composition, debugging and modification often consume more time and expense in production environments. Debugging is the task of locating syntactic and semantic errors in programs and correcting these errors. Modification is the change of a working program to perform alternate tasks.The factors and techniques which facilitate debugging and modification are poorly understood, but are subject to experimental investigation. Controlled experiments can be performed by presenting two groups of subjects with two forms of a program or different programming aids and requiring the same task. For example, in one study we presented an 81 line FORTRAN program containing three bugs to distinct groups of subjects. One of the groups received a detailed flowchart, but our results indicated that this aid did not facilitate the debugging procedure. Similar negative results were obtained for a modification task.In other experiments, comments and meaningful variable names were useful in debugging and modularity facilitated modification. Other potentially influential factors, which are subject to experimental study, include indentation rules, type of control structures, data structure complexity and program design.These and other human factor experiments in programming have led to a cognitive model of programmer behavior which distinguishes between the hierarchically structured, meaningfully acquired semantic knowledge and the rotely memorized syntactic knowledge. Errors can be classed into syntactic mistakes which are relatively easy to locate and correct and two forms of semantic mistakes. Semantic errors occur while constructing an internal semantic structure to a representation in the syntax of a programming language. Modification is interpreted as the acquisition of an internal semantic structure by studying a program, followed by modification of this structure and revision of the code.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1976Experimental,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and McKay, Don},
  title = {Experimental Investigations of Computer Program Debugging and Modification},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {20},
  number = {24},
  pages = {557-563},
  doi = {10.1177/154193127602002401}
}
Shneiderman B and Heller J (1972), "A graph theoretic model of data structures", SIGIR Forum. New York, NY, USA, Dec., 1972. Vol. 7, pp. 36-44. ACM.
Abstract: The widespread development of large shared data bases has proceeded mainly on empirical notions. Only in the past few years have there been attempts at formalizing the underlying concepts into a theory of data structures. The present models have been founded on the well-established mathematical theories of sets, relations and graphs, but few descriptions have been sufficiently developed to meet the needs of a complete theory of data structures. The set theoretic formalism offered by Childs(1) or Schwartz(2) or the relational model by Codd(3) are useful but fail to give a complete description of the complex structures found in modern data bases. The graph theoretic concepts found in papers by Harary and Hsiao(4) and Earley(5) are more appealing but need further elaboration. This paper is an attempt to develop a graph theoretic model into a useful formalism for describing and manipulating data structures.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1972graph,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Heller, J},
  title = {A graph theoretic model of data structures},
  journal = {SIGIR Forum},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1972},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {36--44},
  doi = {10.1145/1095495.1095499}
}
Articles in Unrefereed Publications
Shneiderman B (2013), "Toward an ecological model of research and development", The Atlantic., April, 2013.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2013Toward,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben },
  title = {Toward an ecological model of research and development},
  journal = {The Atlantic},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/04/toward-an-ecological-model-of-research-and-development/275187/}
}
"Computing Research Association, Computing Community Consortium (CCC)", Computing for Disasters: A Report from the Community Workshop, pp. 27, 2012,
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{2012Computing,
  title = {Computing Research Association, Computing Community Consortium (CCC)},
  journal = {Computing for Disasters: A Report from the Community Workshop},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {27},
  month = {Jun.},
  file = {Computing Research Association, Computing Community Consortium (CCC), Computing for Disasters\: A Report from the Community Workshop:papers/2012Computing.pdf:PDF},
  url = {http://cra.org/ccc/docs/init/computingfordisasters.pdf}
}
Claudino L, Khamis S, Liu R, London B, Pujara J, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2011), "Facilitating medication reconciliation with animation and spatial layout", Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Systems in Healthcare., Oct., 2011.
Abstract: Our project looks at novel user interfaces to facilitate medication reconciliation. We are focusing on the user interface that physicians might use to compare and merge two separate lists of medications. Similarities and differences between the lists need to be identified; decisions need to be made as to which medications should be continued and which ones should be stopped. We describe a novel prototype called TwinList that uses animation and spatial layout to reveal similarities, and color to highlight differences in similar medications. Simple interactive controls facilitate the selection of sets of medications to be continued or stopped. We are in the early stages of user evaluation.
BibTeX:
@article{Claudino2011Facilitating,
  author = {Claudino, Leo and Khamis, Sameh and Liu, Ran and London, Ben and Pujara, Jay and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Facilitating medication reconciliation with animation and spatial layout},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Systems in Healthcare},
  year = {2011}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2011), "Electronic medical records: usability challenges and opportunities", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Nov., 2011. Vol. 18(6), pp. 48-49. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2011Electronic,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Electronic medical records: usability challenges and opportunities},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18},
  number = {6},
  pages = {48--49},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2029976.2029989},
  doi = {10.1145/2029976.2029989}
}
Shneiderman B (2011), "Claiming success, charting the future: micro-HCI and macro-HCI", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Sep., 2011. Vol. 18(5), pp. 10-11. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Claiming,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Claiming success, charting the future: micro-HCI and macro-HCI},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18},
  number = {5},
  pages = {10--11},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2008176.2008180},
  doi = {10.1145/2008176.2008180}
}
Shneiderman B, Preece J and Pirolli P (2011), "Promoting a national initiative for Technology-Mediated Social Participation", Computing Research News., Jan., 2011.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Promoting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Preece, Jennifer and Pirolli, Peter},
  title = {Promoting a national initiative for Technology-Mediated Social Participation},
  journal = {Computing Research News},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://www.cra.org/resources/crn-archive-view-detail/promoting_a_national_initiative_for_technology-mediated_social_participatio/}
}
Shneiderman B (2011), "Tragic errors: usability and electronic health records", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Nov., 2011. Vol. 18(6), pp. 60-63. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Tragic,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Tragic errors: usability and electronic health records},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18},
  number = {6},
  pages = {60--63},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2029976.2029992},
  doi = {10.1145/2029976.2029992}
}
Shneiderman B (2011), "Discovering business intelligence using treemap visualizations", B-Eye: Buisness Intelligence Network., April, 2011.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2011Discovering,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Discovering business intelligence using treemap visualizations},
  journal = {B-Eye: Buisness Intelligence Network},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://www.b-eye-network.com/print/2673}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2010), "From bowling alone to tweeting together: technology-mediated social participation", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 2010. Vol. 17(2), pp. 64-67. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2010From,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {From bowling alone to tweeting together: technology-mediated social participation},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {17},
  number = {2},
  pages = {64--67},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1699775.1699790},
  doi = {10.1145/1699775.1699790}
}
Pirolli P, Preece J and Shneiderman B (2010), "Cyberinfrastructure for Social Action on National Priorities", Computer., Nov., 2010. Vol. 43(11), pp. 20 -21.
Abstract: Extensive research is needed to build upon currently used media and tools to foster wider participation, address national priorities, and deal with potential dangers associated with technology-mediated social participation.
BibTeX:
@article{Pirolli2010Cyberinfrastructure,
  author = {Pirolli, Peter and Preece, Jenny and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Cyberinfrastructure for Social Action on National Priorities},
  journal = {Computer},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {43},
  number = {11},
  pages = {20 -21},
  doi = {10.1109/MC.2010.315}
}
Shneiderman B (2010), "Mapping Science", Book Review of Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know, by Katy Borner, Nature 468., Dec, 2010.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2010Mapping,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Mapping Science},
  journal = {Book Review of Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know, by Katy Borner, Nature 468},
  year = {2010}
}
Shneiderman B (2010), "Technology-mediated social participation: deep science and extreme technology", In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Active Media Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg , pp. 1-4. Springer-Verlag.
Abstract: The dramatic success of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, blogs, and traditional discussion groups empowers individuals to become active in local and global communities. With modest redesign, these technologies can be harnessed to support national priorities such as healthcare/ wellness, disaster response, community safety, energy sustainability, etc. This talk describes a research agenda for these topics that develops deep science questions and extreme technology challenges.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman2010Technology,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Technology-mediated social participation: deep science and extreme technology},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Active Media Technology},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1--4},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1886192.1886194}
}
Shneiderman B (2009), "Civic Collaboration", Science., July, 2009. Vol. 325(5940), pp. 540.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2009Civic,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Civic Collaboration},
  journal = {Science},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {325},
  number = {5940},
  pages = {540},
  url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5940/540.1.short},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1178326}
}
Shneiderman B (2009), "A National Initiative for Social Participation", Science., Mar., 2009. Vol. 323(5920), pp. 1426-1427.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2009National,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A National Initiative for Social Participation},
  journal = {Science},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {323},
  number = {5920},
  pages = {1426-1427},
  url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/323/5920/1426.short},
  doi = {10.1126/science.323.5920.1426}
}
Shneiderman B (2008), "Science 2.0", Science., Mar., 2008. Vol. 319(5868), pp. 1349-1350.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2008Science,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Science 2.0},
  journal = {Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {319},
  number = {5868},
  pages = {1349-1350},
  url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5868/1349.short},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1153539}
}
Shneiderman B (2007), "25 years of CHI conferences: capturing the exchange of ideas", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 2007. Vol. 14(2), pp. 24-31. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman200725,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {25 years of CHI conferences: capturing the exchange of ideas},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {24--31},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229863.1229865},
  doi = {10.1145/1229863.1229865}
}
Shneiderman B and Preece J (2007), "911.gov", Science. Vol. 315(5814), pp. 944.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2007911.gov,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Preece, Jennifer},
  title = {911.gov},
  journal = {Science},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {315},
  number = {5814},
  pages = {944},
  url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/315/5814/944.short},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1139088}
}
Shneiderman B (2007), "Human Responsibility for Autonomous Agents", IEEE Intelligent Systems., Mar-Apr., 2007. Vol. 22(2), pp. 60 -61.
Abstract: Automated or autonomous systems can sometimes fail harmlessly, but they can also destroy data, compromise privacy, and consume resources, such as bandwidth or server capacity. What's more troubling is that automated systems embedded in vital systems can cause financial losses, destruction of property, and loss of life. Controlling these dangers will increase trust while enabling broader use of these systems with higher degrees of safety. Obvious threats stem from design errors and software bugs, but we can't overlook mistaken assumptions by designers, unanticipated actions by humans, and interference from other computerized systems. This article is part of a special issue on Interacting with Autonomy.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2007Human,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Human Responsibility for Autonomous Agents},
  journal = {IEEE Intelligent Systems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22},
  number = {2},
  pages = {60 -61},
  doi = {10.1109/MIS.2007.32}
}
Shneiderman B (2006), "Discovering business intelligence using treemap visualizations", B-Eye: Buisness Intelligence Network., Apr., 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2006Discovering,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Discovering business intelligence using treemap visualizations},
  journal = {B-Eye: Buisness Intelligence Network},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/2673}
}
Shneiderman B, Bederson BB and Drucker SM (2006), "Find that photo!: interface strategies to annotate, browse, and share", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Apr., 2006. Vol. 49(4), pp. 69-71. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2006Find,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Bederson, Benjamin B. and Drucker, Steven M.},
  title = {Find that photo!: interface strategies to annotate, browse, and share},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {69--71},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1121949.1121985},
  doi = {10.1145/1121949.1121985}
}
Shneiderman B (2006), "A telescope for high-dimensional data", Computing in Science Engineering., Mar-Apr., 2006. Vol. 8(2), pp. 48 -53.
Abstract: Muscular dystrophy is a degenerative disease that destroys muscles and ultimately kills its victims. Researchers worldwide are racing to find a cure by trying to uncover the genetic processes that cause it. Given that a key process is muscle development, researchers at a consortium of 10 institutions are studying 1,000 men and women, ages 18 to 40 years, to see how their muscles enlarge with exercise. The 150 variables collected for each participant will make this data analysis task challenging for users of traditional statistical software tools. However, a new approach to visual data analysis is helping these researchers speed up their work. At the University of Maryland's Human-Computer Interaction Library, we developed an interactive approach to let researchers explore high-dimensional data in an orderly manner, focusing on specific features one at a time. The rank-by-feature framework lets them adjust controls to specify what they're looking for, and then, with only a glance, they can spot strong relationships among variables, find tight data clusters, or identify unexpected gaps. Sometimes surprising outliers invite further study as to whether they represent errors or an unusual outcome. Similar data analysis problems come up in meteorology, finance, chemistry, and other sciences in which complex relationships among many variables govern outcomes. The rank-by-feature framework could be helpful to many researchers, engineers, and managers because they can then steer their analyses toward the action
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2006telescope,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {A telescope for high-dimensional data},
  journal = {Computing in Science Engineering},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {48 -53},
  doi = {10.1109/MCSE.2006.21}
}
Klawe M and Shneiderman B (2005), "Crisis and opportunity in computer science", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Nov., 2005. Vol. 48(11), pp. 27-28. ACM.
Abstract: The future of the field depends on winning back student enrollment, public interest in technology, and government research funding.
BibTeX:
@article{Klawe2005Crisis,
  author = {Klawe, Maria and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Crisis and opportunity in computer science},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {48},
  number = {11},
  pages = {27--28},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1096000.1096024},
  doi = {10.1145/1096000.1096024}
}
Marchionini G, Haas S, Shneiderman B, Plaisant C and Hert CA (2004), "Project highlight: toward the statistical knowledge network", In Proceedings of the 2004 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research. , pp. 125:1-125:2. Digital Government Society of North America.
Abstract: This project aims to help people find and understand government statistical information. To achieve this goal, we envision a statistical knowledge network that brings stakeholders from government at all levels together with citizens who provide or seek statistical information. The linchpin of this network is a series of human-computer interfaces that facilitate information seeking, understanding, and use. In turn, these interfaces depend on high-quality metadata and intra-agency cooperation. In this briefing, we summarize our accomplishments in the second year of the project.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Marchionini2004Project,
  author = {Marchionini, Gary and Haas, Stephanie and Shneiderman, Ben and Plaisant, Catherine and Hert, Carol A.},
  title = {Project highlight: toward the statistical knowledge network},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2004 Annual National Conference on Digital Government Research},
  publisher = {Digital Government Society of North America},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {125:1--125:2},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1124191.1124316}
}
Shneiderman B (2004), "Designing for fun: how can we design user interfaces to be more fun?", Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Sep., 2004. Vol. 11(5), pp. 48-50. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2004Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing for fun: how can we design user interfaces to be more fun?},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {11},
  number = {5},
  pages = {48--50},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1015530.1015552},
  doi = {10.1145/1015530.1015552}
}
Hert CA, Liddy ED, Shneiderman B and Marchionini G (2003), "Supporting statistical electronic table usage by citizens", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Jan., 2003. Vol. 46(1), pp. 52-54. ACM.
Abstract: Over 70 agencies at the federal level are charged with collecting data and producing and disseminating statistics. These statistics are used to inform government policy, shape health care initiatives, provide information on the state of the economy, and others. They also have significant impact on the lives of citizens who use the statistics, for example, to determine job opportunities, changes in social security benefits, and quality of life in particular areas. Our digital government project developed several specific technologies to support the location, manipulation, and understanding of a quintessential format for statistical information---the table.
BibTeX:
@article{Hert2003Supporting,
  author = {Hert, Carol A. and Liddy, Elizabeth D. and Shneiderman, Ben and Marchionini, Gary},
  title = {Supporting statistical electronic table usage by citizens},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {46},
  number = {1},
  pages = {52--54},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/602421.602449},
  doi = {10.1145/602421.602449}
}
Kang H and Shneiderman B (2003), "MediaFinder: an interface for dynamic personal media management with semantic regions", In CHI '03 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 764-765. ACM.
Abstract: Computer users deal with large amounts of personal media often face problems in managing and exploring it. This paper presents Semantic Regions, rectangular regions that enable users to specify their semantics or mental models, and the MediaFinder application, which uses Semantic Regions as the basis of a personal media management tool.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kang2003MediaFinder:,
  author = {Kang, Hyunmo and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {MediaFinder: an interface for dynamic personal media management with semantic regions},
  booktitle = {CHI '03 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {764--765},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/765891.765977},
  doi = {10.1145/765891.765977}
}
Lazar J, Bessiere K, Ceaparu I and Robinson JP (2003), "Help! I'm Lost: User Frustration in Web Navigation", IT and Society., Mar., 2003. Vol. 1(3), pp. 18-26.
Abstract: Computers can be valuable tools, and networked resources via the Internet can be beneficial to many different populations and communities. Unfortunately, when people are unable to reach their task goals due to frustrating experiences, this can hinder the effectiveness of technology. This research summary provides information about the user frustration research that has been performed at the University of Maryland and Towson University. Causes of user frustration are discussed in this research summary, along with the surprising finding that nearly one-third to one-half of the time spent in front of the computer is wasted due to frustrating experiences. Furthermore, when interfaces are planned to be deceptive and confusing, this can lead to increased frustration. Implications for designers and users are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Lazar2003Help!,
  author = {Lazar, J and Bessiere, K and Ceaparu, I and Robinson, J P},
  title = {Help! I'm Lost: User Frustration in Web Navigation},
  journal = {IT and Society},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {18-26}
}
Lazar J, Jones A, Bessiere K, Ceaparu I and Shneiderman B (2003), "User Frustration with Technology in the Workplace", Proceedings of Association for Information Systems 2003 Americas Conference. , pp. 2199-2202.
Abstract: When hard to use computers cause users to become frustrated, it can affect workplace productivity, user mood, and interactions with other co-workers. Previous research has examined the frustration that graduate students and their families face in using computers. To learn more about the causes and effects of user frustration with computers in the workplace, we collected modified time diaries from 50 workplace users, who spent an average of 5.1 hours on the computer. In this experiment, users reported wasting on average, 42-43 % of their time on the computer due to frustrating experiences. The causes of the frustrating experiences, the time lost due to the frustrating experiences, and the effects of the frustrating experiences on the mood of the users are discussed in this paper. Implications for designers, managers, users, information technology staff, and policymakers are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Lazar2003User,
  author = {Jonathan Lazar and Adam Jones and Katie Bessiere and Irina Ceaparu and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {User Frustration with Technology in the Workplace},
  journal = {Proceedings of Association for Information Systems 2003 Americas Conference},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {2199-2202},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.77.1411}
}
Hert C, Marchionini G, Liddy E and Shneiderman B (2002), "Interacting with tabular data through the World Wide Web", Proceedings of the Seminar on Integrating Federal Statistical Information and Processes.
BibTeX:
@article{Hert2002Interacting,
  author = {Carol Hert and Gary Marchionini and Elizabeth Liddy and Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Interacting with tabular data through the World Wide Web},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Seminar on Integrating Federal Statistical Information and Processes},
  year = {2002}
}
Shneiderman B (2002), "ACM's computing professionals face new challenges", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Feb., 2002. Vol. 45(2), pp. 31-34. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2002ACMs,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {ACM's computing professionals face new challenges},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {45},
  number = {2},
  pages = {31--34},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/503124.503142},
  doi = {10.1145/503124.503142}
}
Shneiderman B (2002), "Beyond information appliances: Serving human needs", Ricoh Technical Report No. 28. , pp. 7-9.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2002Beyond,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Beyond information appliances: Serving human needs},
  journal = {Ricoh Technical Report No. 28},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {7-9}
}
Shneiderman B, Kang H, Kules B, Plaisant C, Rose A and Rucheir R (2002), "A photo history of SIGCHI: evolution of design from personal to public", ACM Interactions. New York, NY, USA, May, 2002. Vol. 9(3), pp. 17-23. ACM.
Abstract: For 20 years I have been photographing personalities and events in the emerging discipline of human--computer interaction. Until now, only a few of these photos were published in newsletters or were shown to visitors who sought them out. Now this photo history is going from a personal record to a public archive. This archive should be interesting for professional members of this community who want to reminisce, as well as for historians and journalists who want to understand what happened. Students and Web surfers may also want to look at the people who created better interfaces and more satisfying user experiences.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2002photo,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Kang, Hyunmo and Kules, Bill and Plaisant, Catherine and Rose, Anne and Rucheir, Richesh},
  title = {A photo history of SIGCHI: evolution of design from personal to public},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  pages = {17--23},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/506671.506682},
  doi = {10.1145/506671.506682}
}
Hochheiser H and Shneiderman B (2001), "Universal usability statements: Marking the trail for all users", ACM Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 2001. Vol. 8(2), pp. 16-18. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Hochheiser2001Universal,
  author = {Hochheiser, Harry and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Universal usability statements: Marking the trail for all users},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {16--18},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/361897.361913},
  doi = {10.1145/361897.361913}
}
Shneiderman B (2001), "Design: CUU: bridging the digital divide with universal usability", ACM Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 2001. Vol. 8(2), pp. 11-15. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2001Design:,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Design: CUU: bridging the digital divide with universal usability},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {11--15},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/361897.361905},
  doi = {10.1145/361897.361905}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Designing trust into online experiences", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Dec., 2000. Vol. 43(12), pp. 57-59. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2000Designing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Designing trust into online experiences},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {43},
  number = {12},
  pages = {57--59},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/355112.355124},
  doi = {10.1145/355112.355124}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "The limits of speech recognition", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Sep., 2000. Vol. 43(9), pp. 63-65. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2000limits,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The limits of speech recognition},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {43},
  number = {9},
  pages = {63--65},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/348941.348990},
  doi = {10.1145/348941.348990}
}
Shneiderman B (2000), "Universal usability", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, May, 2000. Vol. 43(5), pp. 84-91. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman2000Universal,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Universal usability},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {43},
  number = {5},
  pages = {84--91},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/332833.332843},
  doi = {10.1145/332833.332843}
}
Brown J, van Dam A, Earnshaw R, Encarnacao J, Guedj R, Preece J, Shneiderman B and Vince J (1999), "Human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications., Nov-Dec., 1999. Vol. 19(6), pp. 70 -74.
Abstract: This report summarizes results of the first EC/NSF joint Advanced Research Workshop, which identified key research challenges and opportunities in information technology. The group agreed that the first joint research workshop should concentrate on the themes of human-centered computing and VEs. Human-centered computing is perceived as an area of strategic importance because of the move towards greater decentralization and decomposition in the location and provision of computation. The area of VEs is one where increased collaboration should speed progress in solving some of the more intractable problems in building effective applications
BibTeX:
@article{Brown1999Human,
  author = {Brown, J.R. and van Dam, A. and Earnshaw, R. and Encarnacao, J. and Guedj, R. and Preece, J. and Shneiderman, B. and Vince, J.},
  title = {Human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments},
  journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {19},
  number = {6},
  pages = {70 -74},
  doi = {10.1109/38.799742}
}
Brown JR, Dam AV, Earnshaw R, Encarnacao J, Guedj R, Preece J, Shneiderman B and Vince J (1999), "Special report on human-centered computing, online communities and virtual environments", ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics., Aug., 1999. Vol. 33, pp. 42-62.
BibTeX:
@article{Brown1999Special,
  author = {Judith R. Brown and Andy Van Dam and Rae Earnshaw and Jose Encarnacao and Richard Guedj and Jennifer Preece and Ben Shneiderman and John Vince},
  title = {Special report on human-centered computing, online communities and virtual environments},
  journal = {ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {42-62},
  url = {http://www.siggraph.org/publications/newsletter/v33n3/contributions/special.html}
}
Kreitzberg C and Shneiderman B (1999), "Making computer and internet usability a national priority", Common Ground.
Abstract: A management oriented essay on how to promote usability in organizations. It begins with crafting the message (Good usability is good business). Then it deals with creating a cultural shift in information technology and software engineering departments, so that the impact of poor design and the benefits of improvements are widely understood. It closes with an eight-step call to action. Keywords: usability, technology fluency, user-centered design, software engineering
BibTeX:
@article{Kreitzberg1999Making,
  author = {Kreitzberg, Charles and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Making computer and internet usability a national priority},
  journal = {Common Ground},
  year = {1999}
}
Scholtz J and Shneiderman B (1999), "Introduction to Special Issue on Usability Engineering", Empirical Software Engineering. Hingham, MA, USA, Mar., 1999. Vol. 4(1), pp. 5-10. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
BibTeX:
@article{Scholtz1999Introduction,
  author = {Scholtz, Jean and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Introduction to Special Issue on Usability Engineering},
  journal = {Empirical Software Engineering},
  publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--10},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009852413783},
  doi = {10.1023/A:1009852413783}
}
Scholtz J, Muller M, Novick D, Olsen Jr. DR, Shneiderman B and Wharton C (1999), "A research agenda for highly effective human-computer interaction: useful, usable, and universal", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Oct., 1999. Vol. 31(4), pp. 13-16. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Scholtz1999research,
  author = {Scholtz, Jean and Muller, Michael and Novick, David and Olsen,Jr., Dan R. and Shneiderman, Ben and Wharton, Cathleen},
  title = {A research agenda for highly effective human-computer interaction: useful, usable, and universal},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {31},
  number = {4},
  pages = {13--16},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/339290.339293},
  doi = {10.1145/339290.339293}
}
Shneiderman B (1999), "Jefferson's Laptop: User interfaces for universal creativity", Educom Review., May/Jun., 1999. Vol. 34, pp. 34-36.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1999Jeffersons,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Jefferson's Laptop: User interfaces for universal creativity},
  journal = {Educom Review},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {34-36},
  url = {http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/html/erm/erm99/erm9933.html}
}
Kearsley G and Shneiderman B (1998), "Engagement Theory: A Framework for Technology-Based Teaching and Learning", Educational Technology. Vol. 38(5), pp. 20-23.
BibTeX:
@article{Kearsley1998Engagement,
  author = {Kearsley, G. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Engagement Theory: A Framework for Technology-Based Teaching and Learning},
  journal = {Educational Technology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {38},
  number = {5},
  pages = {20--23},
  url = {http://home.sprynet.com/gkearsley/engage.htm}
}
Shneiderman B (1998), "Codex, memex, genex: the pursuit of transformational technologies", In CHI 98 Conference Summary on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA , pp. 98-99. ACM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1998Codex,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Codex, memex, genex: the pursuit of transformational technologies},
  booktitle = {CHI 98 Conference Summary on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {98--99},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/286498.286548},
  doi = {10.1145/286498.286548}
}
Shneiderman B (1998), "Visualizing Personal Histories: A Workshop, July 21-22, 1997", ACM SIGCHI Bulletin. New York, NY, USA, Jan., 1998. Vol. 30(1), pp. 34-35. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1998Visualizing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Visualizing Personal Histories: A Workshop, July 21-22, 1997},
  journal = {ACM SIGCHI Bulletin},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {34--35},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/280571.280585},
  doi = {10.1145/280571.280585}
}
Doan K, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B and Bruns T (1997), "Query previews for networked information systems: a case study with NASA environmental data", SIGMOD Rec.. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 1997. Vol. 26(1), pp. 75-81. ACM.
Abstract: Formulating queries on networked information systems is laden with problems: data diversity, data complexity, network growth, varied user base, and slow network access. This paper proposes a new approach to a network query user interface which consists of two phases: query preview and query refinement. This new approach is based on dynamic queries and tight coupling, guiding users to rapidly and dynamically eliminate undesired items, reduce the data volume to a manageable size, and refine queries locally before submission over a network. A two-phase dynamic query system for NASA's Earth Observing Systems--Data Information Systems (EOSDIS) is presented. The prototype was well received by the team of scientists who evaluated the interface.
BibTeX:
@article{Doan1997Query,
  author = {Doan, Khoa and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben and Bruns, Tom},
  title = {Query previews for networked information systems: a case study with NASA environmental data},
  journal = {SIGMOD Rec.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {75--81},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/248603.248617},
  doi = {10.1145/248603.248617}
}
Maes P, Shneiderman B and Miller J (1997), "Intelligent software agents vs. user-controlled direct manipulation: a debate", In CHI '97 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Looking To The Future. New York, NY, USA , pp. 105-106. ACM.
Abstract: Critical issues in human-computer interaction - in particular, the advantages and disadvantages of intelligent agents and direct manipulation - will be discussed, debated, and hotly contested. The intent of the participants is to strike an appropriate balance between a serious discussion of the issues and an entertaining debate.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Maes1997Intelligent,
  author = {Maes, Pattie and Shneiderman, Ben and Miller, Jim},
  title = {Intelligent software agents vs. user-controlled direct manipulation: a debate},
  booktitle = {CHI '97 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Looking To The Future},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {105--106},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1120212.1120281},
  doi = {10.1145/1120212.1120281}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "Between hope and fear", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Feb., 1997. Vol. 40(2), pp. 59-62. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1997Between,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Between hope and fear},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  number = {2},
  pages = {59--62},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/253671.253706},
  doi = {10.1145/253671.253706}
}
Shneiderman B, Byrd D and Croft WB (1997), "Clarifying Search: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches" Corporation for National Research Initiatives.
Abstract: Current user interfaces for textual database searching leave much to be desired: individually, they are often confusing, and as a group, they are seriously inconsistent. We propose a four- phase framework for user-interface design: the framework provides common structure and terminology for searching while preserving the distinct features of individual collections and search mechanisms. Users will benefit from faster learning, increased comprehension, and better control, leading to more effective searches and higher satisfaction.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Shneiderman1997Clarifying,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Byrd, Don and Croft, W. B},
  title = {Clarifying Search: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches},
  publisher = {Corporation for National Research Initiatives},
  year = {1997},
  url = {http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january97/retrieval/01shneiderman.html}
}
Shneiderman B. and Maes, P. (1997), "Direct manipulation vs. software agents: A debate", ACM Interactions, Vol. 4(6), (Nov/Dec 1997), pp. 42-61. Reprinted in Japanese, Nikkei Electronics No. 728, (October 19, 1998), 149-159 and No. 730 (November 16, 1998), 203-212.
BibTeX:
@article{ShneidermanMaes1997,
  author = {Shneiderman, B. and Maes, P.},
  title = {Direct manipulation vs. software agents: A debate},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  year = {1997},
  volume = 4,
  number = {6},
  pages = {42 -61},
  doi = {10.1145/267505.267514}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "A framework for search interfaces", IEEE Software., Mar-Apr., 1997. Vol. 14(2), pp. 18 -20.
Abstract: Searching textual databases can be confusing for users. Popular search systems for the World Wide Web and stand alone systems typically provide a simple interface: users type in keywords and receive a relevance ranked list of 10 results. This is appealing in its simplicity, but users are often frustrated because search results are confusing or aspects of the search are out of their control. If we are to improve user performance, reduce mistaken assumptions, and increase successful searches, we need more predictable design. To coordinate design practice, we suggest a four-phase framework that would satisfy first time, intermittent, and frequent users accessing a variety of textual and multimedia libraries
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1997framework,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {A framework for search interfaces},
  journal = {IEEE Software},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {18 -20},
  doi = {10.1109/52.582969}
}
Tanin E, Beigel R and Shneiderman B (1996), "Incremental data structures and algorithms for dynamic query interfaces", ACM SIGMOD Record. New York, NY, USA, Dec., 1996. Vol. 25(4), pp. 21-24. ACM.
Abstract: Dynamic query interfaces (DQIs) form a recently developed method of database access that provides continuous realtime feedback to the user during the query formulation process. Previous work shows that DQIs are elegant and powerful interfaces to small databases. Unfortunately, when applied to large databases, previous DQI algorithms slow to a crawl. We present a new approach to DQI algorithms that works well with large databases.
BibTeX:
@article{Tanin1996Incremental,
  author = {Tanin, Egemen and Beigel, Richard and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Incremental data structures and algorithms for dynamic query interfaces},
  journal = {ACM SIGMOD Record},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {21--24},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/245882.245891},
  doi = {10.1145/245882.245891}
}
Shneiderman B (1995), "The info superhighway: for the people", Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA, Jan., 1995. Vol. 38(1), pp. 162-. ACM.
Abstract: The opportunities are attractive, but some pavers of the Information Superhighway (ISH) are too eager to pour concrete. They risk making rough roads that will alienate the very users they seek. These technologically oriented ISH devotees may be building dramatic overpasses and painting stripes without figuring out where the highway should be going. I believe greater attention should be paid to identifying appropriate services, designing a consistent user interface, and developing a clearer model of the diverse user communities
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1995info,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {The info superhighway: for the people},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {38},
  number = {1},
  pages = {162--},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/204865.204898},
  doi = {10.1145/204865.204898}
}
Shneiderman B (1995), "Looking for the bright side of user interface agents", ACM Interactions. New York, NY, USA, Jan., 1995. Vol. 2(1), pp. 13-15. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1995Looking,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Looking for the bright side of user interface agents},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {13--15},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/208143.208150},
  doi = {10.1145/208143.208150}
}
Shneiderman B (1994), "Supporting the process of innovation: The Maryland Way", ACM Interactions., Jan., 1994. Vol. 1, pp. 67-71.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1994Supporting,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Supporting the process of innovation: The Maryland Way},
  journal = {ACM Interactions},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {67-71},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/pubs/books/maryland-way.shtml}
}
Chimera R and Shneiderman B (1993), "User interface consistency: An evaluation of original and revised interfaces for a videodisk library", Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction. , pp. 259-271.
Abstract: Original and revised versions of the National Library of Medicine MicroAnatomy Visual Library system were evaluated with an empirical test of nineteen subjects. The versions of the program's interface differed on issues relating to consistency of wording and screen layout, use of color coding, display of status information, and availability of help information. Each subject used both versions of the program to perform matched sets of tasks. The dependent variables were time to perform tasks correctly and subjective satisfaction as reported via the QUIS questionnaire. The revised version was statistically significantly faster for five of twenty tasks and more satisfying to use on a number of dimensions. The benefits of consistency and guidelines for design of interactive computer systems are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Chimera1993User,
  author = {Chimera, Richard and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {User interface consistency: An evaluation of original and revised interfaces for a videodisk library},
  journal = {Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {259-271},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/93-11/93-11.html}
}
Shneiderman B (1993), "Declaration in Apple vs. Microsoft/Hewlett-Packard", Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction. , pp. 355-361.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1993Declaration,
  author = {Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Declaration in Apple vs. Microsoft/Hewlett-Packard},
  journal = {Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {355-361},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/local-cgi-bin/hcil/rr.pl?number=93-12}
}
Shneiderman B (1992), "Socially responsible computing II: first steps on the path to positive contributions", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Jul., 1992. Vol. 24(3), pp. 16-17. ACM.
Abstract: Now that we are past the initial emotional responses to the LA riots, maybe we can use these tragic events as a stimulus for innovative and constructive efforts. Computing professionals have been active in social causes on an individual basis and in some large projects, but with the growing maturity of our industry we can promote larger initiatives and accept greater responsibility.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1992Socially,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Socially responsible computing II: first steps on the path to positive contributions},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {16--17},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/134421.134432},
  doi = {10.1145/134421.134432}
}
Shneiderman B (1992), "Socially responsible computing I: a call to action following the L.A. riots", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Jul., 1992. Vol. 24(3), pp. 14-15. ACM.
Abstract: The smoke and fire of the Los Angeles riots (April 30 - May 2, 1992) were Mayday warnings from a desperate community. To ignore this signal would be tragic and unconscionable, but finding a meaningful response is a challenge for computing professionals. Silicon Valley seems a long way from South Central Los Angeles and the computing industry has been largely distant from the problems of the urban underclass.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1992Sociallya,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Socially responsible computing I: a call to action following the L.A. riots},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {14--15},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/134421.134431},
  doi = {10.1145/134421.134431}
}
Shneiderman B, Kreitzberg C and Berk E (1991), "Editing to structure a reader’s experience", In Handbook of Hypertext/hypermedia. Hightstown, NJ, USA , pp. 143-164. McGraw-Hill, Inc..
BibTeX:
@incollection{Shneiderman1991Editing,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Kreitzberg, Charles and Berk, Emily},
  editor = {Berk, Emily and Devlin, Joseph},
  title = {Editing to structure a reader’s experience},
  booktitle = {Handbook of Hypertext/hypermedia},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill, Inc.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {143--164},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=116408.116421}
}
Shneiderman B (1990), "Protecting rights in user interface designs", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Nov., 1990. Vol. 22(2), pp. 18-19. ACM.
Abstract: Sacrificing individual rights in the hopes of benefitting the public good is a tempting but often misguided pursuit. I believe that protecting individual rights (civil, voting, privacy, intellectual property, etc.) is usually the best way to benefit and advance the public good.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1990Protecting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Protecting rights in user interface designs},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {22},
  number = {2},
  pages = {18--19},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/122475.122478},
  doi = {10.1145/122475.122478}
}
Mitchell J and Shneiderman B (1989), "Dynamic versus static menus: an exploratory comparison", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Apr., 1989. Vol. 20(4), pp. 33-37. ACM.
Abstract: Sixty-three subjects completed 24 tasks using a menu driven computer program. The menu items appeared in a fixed (static) order during 12 of the tasks. During the other 12 tasks the menu item order changed dynamically such that the most frequently selected items always appeared at the top of the menu. All the subjects tried both dynamic and static menus.The subjects that used adaptive dynamic menus for the first set of tasks were significantly slower than those who used static menus on the first set of tasks. Subjects' performance during the second set of tasks was not affected by menu style. Eighty-one percent of the subjects preferred working with static menus to working with dynamic menus.
BibTeX:
@article{Mitchell1989Dynamic,
  author = {Mitchell, J. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Dynamic versus static menus: an exploratory comparison},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  pages = {33--37},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/67243.67247},
  doi = {10.1145/67243.67247}
}
Shneiderman B (1989), "Intelligent User Interfaces: From Fantasy to Fact", In Proceedings of IFIP XI World Computer Congress. , pp. 915.
Abstract: The fantasy of intelligent interfaces is considered to be a poor starting point for successful system design. The concept is vague and misleads designers to think that users want to be impressed with the cleverness of the computer. The evidence is mounting that users much prefer interfaces that give them a sense of mastery and control. Design goals and research methods are proposed to speed development of more successful and powerful user interfaces.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1989Intelligent,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Intelligent User Interfaces: From Fantasy to Fact},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IFIP XI World Computer Congress},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {915},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/local-cgi-bin/hcil/rr.pl?number=89-11}
}
Iseki O and Shneiderman B (1986), "Applying direct manipulation concepts: direct manipulation dik operating system (DMDOS)", SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes. New York, NY, USA, Apr., 1986. Vol. 11(2), pp. 22-26. ACM.
Abstract: Software engineers are often called upon to design user interfaces, but strategies and guidelines are only beginning to emerge. Shneiderman (1983) introduced the term "Direct Manipulation" to describe user interfaces which have:1) continuous representation of the objects of interest.2) physical actions (movement and selection by mouse, joystick, touch screen, etc.) or labeled button presses instead of complex Syntax.3) rapid, incremental, reversible operations whose impact on the object of interest is immediately visible.4) layered or spiral approach to learning that permits usage with minimal knowledge.The concepts of direct manipulation has been applied in some distinctive systems such as XEROX STAR and APPLE Macintosh, and many application software products such as spread sheets, word processors, drawing tools, desk-top managers, etc.However, the basic software of personal computers, the operating system, is still often based on command language concepts. This paper describes DMDOS (Direct Manipulation Disk Operating System), that we designed by applying the concepts of direct manipulation. to MS-DOS on the IBM PC.
BibTeX:
@article{Iseki1986Applying,
  author = {Iseki, Osamu and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Applying direct manipulation concepts: direct manipulation dik operating system (DMDOS)},
  journal = {SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {22--26},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/382248.382815},
  doi = {10.1145/382248.382815}
}
MacArthur CA and Shneiderman B (1986), "Learning Disabled Students' Difficulties in Learning to Use A Word Processor: Implications for Instruction and Software Evaluation", Journal of Learning Disabilities. Vol. 19(4), pp. 248-253.
Abstract: Learning disabled (LD) students can derive great benefits from using word processors. The ability to produce a neat, printed copy can increase motivation and encourage writing for a wider audience. The editing power makes revision possible without tedious recopying, thus freeing students and teachers to approach writing as a process involving repeated drafts. Specific problems with handwriting and spelling can also be circumvented. However, learning to use a word processor often presents problems. Based on a study of LD students learning to use word processing, this paper makes recommendations for evaluating word processing software and designing instruction that is sensitive to students difficulties.
BibTeX:
@article{MacArthur1986Learning,
  author = {MacArthur, Charles A. and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Learning Disabled Students' Difficulties in Learning to Use A Word Processor: Implications for Instruction and Software Evaluation},
  journal = {Journal of Learning Disabilities},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {19},
  number = {4},
  pages = {248-253},
  url = {http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/19/4/248.abstract},
  doi = {10.1177/002221948601900414}
}
Shneiderman B (1986), "Human-computer interaction research at the University of Maryland", SIGCHI Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Jan., 1986. Vol. 17(3), pp. 27-32. ACM.
Abstract: The Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) is a unit of the Center for Automation Research at the Univesity of Maryland. HCIL is an interdisciplinary research group whose participants are faculty in the Departments of Computer Science and Psychology and the Colleges of Library and Information Services, Business, and Education. In addition, staff scienctists, graduate students, and undergraduates contribute to this small, but lively community that pursues empirical studies of people using computers.Our support comes from industrial research projects, government grants, the State of Maryland, and the University of Maryland. Projects often become interrelated in surprising ways enabling individuals to cooperate constructively. Some of our efforts during the past year are described below.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1986Human,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Human-computer interaction research at the University of Maryland},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {27--32},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/15671.15673},
  doi = {10.1145/15671.15673}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "Fighting for the user", Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science (ASIS)., Dec., 1982. Vol. 9, pp. 27-29.
Abstract: Redesign of human-computer interface for users of computerized information systems can make substantial difference in training time, performance speed, error rates, and user satisfaction. Information and computer scientists are using controlled psychologically oriented experimentation, and evaluations during system development and active use to test design impact on human performance measures. (EJS)
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1982Fighting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Fighting for the user},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science (ASIS)},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {27-29},
  url = {http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ276739&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ276739}
}
Shneiderman B (1981), "Putting the human factor into systems development", In Proceedings of the 8th Annual Computer Personnel Research Conference. New York, NY, USA , pp. 1-13. ACM.
Abstract: As the community of computer users expands beyond experienced professionals to encompass novice users with little technical training, human factors considerations must play a larger role. “Computer shock” and “terminal terror” cannot be cured, they must be prevented by more careful human engineering during the system design phase. This paper offers four approaches to including human factors considerations during system design. These approaches focus on increasing user involvement and emphasize extensive pilot testing. Human factors cannot be added as refinements to a completed design; they must be a central concern during the initial requirements analysis and through every design stage.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Shneiderman1981Putting,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Putting the human factor into systems development},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th Annual Computer Personnel Research Conference},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {1--13},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/800051.801845},
  doi = {10.1145/800051.801845}
}
Shneiderman B (1979), "Human Factors Experiments in Designing Interactive Systems", Proc. IEEE COMPCON '80 Conference. Los Alamitos, CA, USA Vol. 12, pp. 9-19. IEEE Computer Society.
Abstract: Successful industrial design gracefully unites esthetics and function at minimum cost. However, designers face special problems when they apply their skills to interactive computer systems.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1979Human,
  author = {B. Shneiderman},
  title = {Human Factors Experiments in Designing Interactive Systems},
  journal = {Proc. IEEE COMPCON '80 Conference},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {9-19},
  url = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.1979.1658571}
}
Shneiderman B (1975), "Cognitive psychology and programming language design", SIGPLAN Not.. New York, NY, USA, July, 1975. Vol. 10(7), pp. 46-47. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1975Cognitive,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Cognitive psychology and programming language design},
  journal = {SIGPLAN Not.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {10},
  number = {7},
  pages = {46--47},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/987305.987314},
  doi = {10.1145/987305.987314}
}
Shneiderman B (1974), "Opportunities for data base reorganization", SIGMOD Rec.. New York, NY, USA, Dec., 1974. Vol. 6(4), pp. 1-8. ACM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1974Opportunities,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Opportunities for data base reorganization},
  journal = {SIGMOD Rec.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {6},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1--8},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/983082.983083},
  doi = {10.1145/983082.983083}
}
Nassi I and Shneiderman B (1973), "Flowchart techniques for structured programming", SIGPLAN Not.. New York, NY, USA, Aug., 1973. Vol. 8(8), pp. 12-26. ACM.
Abstract: With the advent of structured programming and GOTO-less programming a method is needed to model computation in simply ordered structures, each representing a complete thought possibly defined in terms of other thoughts as yet undefined. A model is needed which prevents unrestricted transfers of control and has a control structure closer to languages amenable to structured programming. We present an attempt at such a model.
BibTeX:
@article{Nassi1973Flowchart,
  author = {Nassi, I. and Shneiderman, B.},
  title = {Flowchart techniques for structured programming},
  journal = {SIGPLAN Not.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {8},
  number = {8},
  pages = {12--26},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/953349.953350},
  doi = {10.1145/953349.953350}
}
Shneiderman B (1973), "Bibliography on Data Base Structures.", SIGIR Forum. , pp. 15-22.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1973Bibliography,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Bibliography on Data Base Structures.},
  journal = {SIGIR Forum},
  year = {1973},
  pages = {15-22}
}
Shneiderman B (1971), "Computer science education and social relevance", SIGCSE Bull.. New York, NY, USA, Mar., 1971. Vol. 3(1), pp. 21-24. ACM.
Abstract: The rise of computer science as a theoretical discipline should not be allowed to proceed without promoting the study of the social implications and applications of the field. This paper describes an undergraduate course whose primary goal is to foster an understanding of how computers can be used for socially relevant purposes. The students were required to propose and execute a project which could benefit people directly. The projects are described and suggestions for further work are given.The rapid rise of Computer Science as a major field of university study is unprecedented. In 25 years digital computers have risen from a laboratory experiment to a full-fledged academic discipline. Most major universities have created Departments of Computer Science and offer advanced degrees.
BibTeX:
@article{Shneiderman1971Computer,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Computer science education and social relevance},
  journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {21--24},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/873674.873677},
  doi = {10.1145/873674.873677}
}
Chapters in Books
Onukwugha, E., Plaisant, C., and Shneiderman, B., Data visualization tools for investigating health services utilization among cancer patients, in Hesse, B., Ahern, D., and Beckjord, E. (Eds.), Oncology Informatics: Using Health Information Technology to Improve Processes and Outcomes in Cancer, Academic Press (2016), 207-229.
Abstract: The era of "big data" promises more information for health practitioners, patients, researchers, and policy makers. For big data resources to be more than larger haystacks in which to find precious needles, stakeholders will have to aim higher than increasing computing power and producing faster, nimbler machines. We will have to develop tools for visualizing information; generating insight; and creating actionable, on-demand knowledge for clinical decision making. This chapter has three objectives: 1) to review the data visualization tools that are currently available and their use in oncology; 2) to discuss implications for research, practice, and decision making in oncology; and 3) to illustrate the possibilities for generating insight and actionable evidence using targeted case studies. A few innovative applications of data visualization are available from the clinical and research settings. We highlight some of these applications and discuss the implications for evidence generation and clinical practice. In addition, we develop two case studies to illustrate the possibilities for generating insight from the strategic application of data visualization tools where the interoperability problem is solved. Using linked cancer registry and Medicare claims data available from the National Cancer Institute, we illustrate how data visualization tools unlock insights from temporal event sequences represented in large, population-based datasets. We show that the information gained from the application of visualization tools such as EventFlow can define questions, refine measures, and formulate testable hypotheses for the investigation of cancer-related clinical and process outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{onukwughadata,
  title={Data Visualization Tools for Investigating Health Services Utilization Among Cancer Patients},
  author={Onukwugha, E and Plaisant, C and Shneiderman, B}
}
Smith, M., Himelboim, I., Rainie, L., and Shneiderman, B., The Structures of Twitter Crowds and Conversations, In Matei, S. A. et al. (Editors), Transparency in Social Media, Computational Social Science, Springer (2015).
Abstract: Social media promises to provide access to a vast variety of human interactions, important and trivial. More than traditional electronic media or interpersonal contact, social media allows people to find and interact based on common interests rather than physical proximity. Billions of people have embraced these tools, entering social media spaces to exchange trillions of messages. Social media interactions may not be as rich as face-to-face interactions, but they offer access to a wide range of people and topics. Success has led to new problems, as social media offers too many contacts, too many interactions, and poor tools for filtering and gaining an overview of the larger landscape of communication. Social media is created and consumed through tools that limit the observer’s view to individual messages or short chains of messages and replies. The leaf and the branch of social media is visible, but not the tree or the forest. The result is an information and interaction deluge. The overwhelming amount of data and the limited ways to understand it can be seen as a negative consequence of social media. For many ordinary users social media is an incomprehensible torrent. Proposed solutions, such as automatic filters that select relevant information for us, are often seen as worse than the problem it is meant to solve. “Filter bubbles” can trap users in homogeneous collections of information, losing sight of the larger range of discussions and content. Social media is inherently a social network, meaning that people use it to create collections of connections that have an emergent form, structure and shape. Interfaces to social media, however, lack insights into the nature, topology, and size of the networks they present. Access to social media network information is of academic and practical interest. Social Network Analysis (SNA) offers a powerful method to conceptualize, analyze and visualize social media—leading to new applications and user interfaces that help users make their own decisions about content relevance and the credibility of other users. Social media can be much more useful for users, and the information in it can be more easily evaluated, if its underlying network structure is made more visible and comprehensible.
BibTeX:
@incollection{smith2015structures,
  title={The structures of Twitter crowds and conversations},
  author={Smith, Marc A and Himelboim, Itai and Rainie, Lee and Shneiderman, Ben},
  booktitle={Transparency in social media},
  pages={67--108},
  year={2015},
  publisher={Springer}
}
Plaisant, C., Monroe, M., Meyer, T., and Shneiderman, B., Interactive Visualization, In Marconi, K. and Lehman, H. (Editors), Big Data and Health Analytics, CRC Press - Taylor and Francis (2014), 243-262.
Abstract: This chapter focuses on the central role of information visualization in health analytics. From the early x-rays to 3D volume visualizations rapid progress has been made, but the most exciting growth is now in the area of information visualization which offer interactive environments and analytic processes that help support exploration of EHR data, monitoring, or insight discovery. For example, a health organization might want to investigate patterns of drug prescriptions in patients with asthma, and compare prescribing practices with current guidelines. Temporal patterns are critical to this analysis, and interactive visualizations are beginning to support powerful temporal queries, present rich result summaries, and offer fluid interactions to identify the clinically relevant patterns hidden in the data. Visualization should soon help clinicians identify cohorts of patients who match selection criteria for clinical trials, or need to be brought back to the office. Visualization can also reveal data quality problems, which are common when repurposing clinical data for secondary analysis. After a quick summary of the state-of-the-art of information visualization systems for exploring and querying HER data, we describe in detail one recent system (EventFlow) developed by the Human-Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Maryland, and illustrate its use with an asthma prescription study example.
BibTeX:
@book{marconi2014big,
  title={Big data and health analytics},
  author={Marconi, Katherine and Lehmann, Harold},
  year={2014},
  publisher={Auerbach Publications}
}
Smith, A., Malik, S., and Shneiderman, B., Visual analysis of topical evolution in unstructured text: Design and evaluation of TopicFlow, In Kazienko, P. and Chawla (Editors), N., Applications of Social Media and Social Network Analysis, Lecture Notes on Social Network Analysis, Springer (2015), 159-176.
Abstract: Topic models are regularly used to provide directed exploration and a high-level overview of a corpus of unstructured text. In many cases, it is important to analyze the evolution of topics over a time range. In this work, we present an application of statistical topic modeling and alignment (binned topic models) to group related documents into automatically generated topics and align the topics across a time range. Additionally, we present TopicFlow , an interactive tool to visualize the evolution of these topics. The tool was developed using an iterative design process based on feedback from expert reviewers. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a detailed analysis of a corpus of data collected over the period of an academic conference, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this visualization for reasoning about large data by a usability study with 18 participants.
BibTeX:
@Inbook{Smith2015,
author="Smith, Alison
and Malik, Sana
and Shneiderman, Ben",
editor="Kazienko, Przemys{\l}aw
and Chawla, Nitesh",
title="Visual Analysis of Topical Evolution in Unstructured Text: Design and Evaluation of TopicFlow",
bookTitle="Applications of Social Media and Social Network Analysis",
year="2015",
publisher="Springer International Publishing",
address="Cham",
pages="159--175",
isbn="978-3-319-19003-7",
doi="10.1007/978-3-319-19003-7_9",
url="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19003-7_9"
}

Shneiderman, B. (2013), "Building trusted social media communities: A research roadmap for promoting credible content", in Bertino, E. and Matei, S. A. (editors), Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets: Theory and Methods. Series: Computational Social Science.
Abstract: A growing body of literature and inspirational examples provides guidance for aspiring social media community leaders. We know that design principles for websites can make a substantial difference in getting first-time users to return and to trust commercial, academic, government, and other websites. By contrast, building credible social media communities requires large numbers of regular content contributors guided by inspirational and committed leaders. This chapter offers a defining framework for discussing the social, technical, and content foundations that encourage trusted contributors to contribute credible content to social media communities. Each component of the framework—the trusted contributors, credible content, reliable resources, and responsible organizations—can be undermined. Therefore, researchers and community leaders who attend to each component have a higher chance to produce positive outcomes. This framework provides a road map for research on and management of credible communities.
BibTeX:
@Inbook{Shneiderman2015,
author="Shneiderman, Ben",
editor="Bertino, Elisa
and Matei, Sorin Adam",
title="Building Trusted Social Media Communities: A Research Roadmap for Promoting Credible Content",
bookTitle="Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets: Theory and Methods",
year="2015",
publisher="Springer International Publishing",
address="Cham",
pages="35--43",
isbn="978-3-319-05467-4",
doi="10.1007/978-3-319-05467-4_2",
url="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05467-4_2"
}
Zalinger, J., Freier, N., and Shneiderman, B., Reading Ben Shneiderman’s Email: Identifying Narrative Elements in Email Archives, In Hawkins, D. (Editor), Personal Archiving: Preserving Our Digital Heritage, Information Today, Inc. (2013), 109-135.
Abstract: This paper describes techniques for finding narrative elements in the archived email of a scholar. The goal is to test a narrative approach to searching using a 15-year email archive containing nearly 45,000 messages belonging to University of Maryland Professor Ben Shneiderman and ranging from 1984-1998. The goal is not to find complete narratives (although, many do exist) but to search for narrative elements, the building blocks that make up a narrative. Thus, narrative search is defined as both a set of search techniques and a way of thinking like a storyteller that allows designers and users to uncover narrative elements. We argue that narrative search is a promising strategy that can be productively applied to other email archives. This paper makes a contribution to HCI by showing that a narrative approach to search can be productive and com-pelling. By encouraging designers (and users) to think like storytellers, we can create robust in-terfaces that help users make narrative sense out of overwhelming amounts of messages.
Gregory M and Shneiderman B (2012), "Shape identification in temporal data sets", State-of-the-Art volume on Computer Graphics, Visualization, Visual Analytics, VR and HCI: Dedicated to the memory of Jim Thomas, 305-321.
Abstract: Shapes are a concise way to describe temporal variable behaviors. Some commonly used shapes are spikes, sinks, rises, and drops. A spike describes a set of variable values that rapidly increase, then immediately rapidly decrease. The variable may be the value of a stock or a person’s blood sugar levels. Shapes are abstract. Details such as the height of spike or its rate increase, are lost in the abstraction. These hidden details make it difficult to define shapes and compare one to another. For example, what attributes of a spike determine its “spikiness”? The ability to define and compare shapes is important because it allows shapes to be identified and ranked, according to an attribute of interest. Work has been done in the area of shape identification through pattern matching and other data mining techniques, but ideas combining the identification and comparison of shapes have received less attention. This paper fills the gap by presenting a set of shapes and the attributes by which they can identified, compared, and ranked. Neither the set of shapes, nor their attributes presented in this paper are exhaustive, but it provides an example of how a shape’s attributes can be used for identification and comparison. The intention of this paper is not to replace any particular mathematical method of identifying a particular behavior, but to provide a toolset for knowledge discovery and an intuitive method of data mining for novices. Spikes, sinks, rises, drops, lines, plateaus, valleys, and gaps are the shapes presented in this paper. Several attributes for each shape are defined. These attributes will be the basis for constructing definitions that allow the shapes to be identified and ranked. The second contribution is an information visualization tool, TimeSearcher: Shape Search Edition (SSE), which allows users to explore data sets using the identification and ranking ideas in this paper.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Gregory2012Shape,
  author = {Gregory, Machon and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Shape identification in temporal data sets},
  journal = {State-of-the-Art volume on Computer Graphics, Visualization, Visual
	Analytics, VR and HCI: Dedicated to the memory of Jim Thomas},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {305-321},
  chapter = {Shape identification in temporal data sets},
  editor = {Dill, J., Earnshaw. R., Kasik, D., Vince, J., Wong, P.C.},
  publisher = {Springer, Berlin},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4471-2804-5_17}
}
Gillam M, Shneiderman B, Feied C, Handler J, Plaisant C, Dickason J, Moody E and Smith M (2009), "The healthcare singularity and the age of semantic medicine", The Fourth Paradigm: The Future of Information Science and Data Intensive Computing, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA (2009), pp. 57-64.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Gillam2009healthcare,
  author = {Gillam, Michael and Shneiderman, Ben and Feied, Craig and Handler,
	Jonathan and Plaisant, Catherine and Dickason, John and Moody, Eliza
	and Smith, Mark},
  title = {The healthcare singularity and the age of semantic medicine},
  journal = {The Fourth Paradigm: The Future of Information Science and Data Intensive
	Computing},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {57-64},
  chapter = {The healthcare singularity and the age of semantic medicine},
  editor = {Hey, A., Tansley, S., and Tolle, K},
  publisher = {Microsoft Research},
  url = {http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/collaboration/fourthparadigm/4th_paradigm_book_part2_gillam.pdf}
}
Shneiderman B (2009), "Creativity Support Tools: A Grand Challenge for HCI Researchers", Engineering the User Interface: From Research to Practice, Springer, Berlin (2009), pp. 1-9.
Abstract: Human-computer interaction researchers can play a key role in designing, implementing, and evaluating a new generation of creativity support tools. Understanding creative processes, especially when mediated by user interfaces will remain a continuing challenge, especially in dealing with novice and expert users, across a variety of disciplines. The expected outcomes include (1) refined theories of technology-supported creative processes, (2) active discussion of user-oriented empirical research methods, (3) new software architectures, database management strategies, and networking technologies, and (4) improved user interfaces to support discover and innovation, especially in collaborative environments.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman2009Creativity,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Creativity Support Tools: A Grand Challenge for HCI Researchers},
  journal = {Engineering the User Interface: From Research to Practice},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-9},
  chapter = {Creativity Support Tools: A Grand Challenge for HCI Researchers},
  editor = {Redondo, Miguel and Bravo, Crescencio and Ortega, Manuel},
  publisher = {Springer, Berlin},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-84800-136-7_1}
}
Jank W, Shmueli G, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2008), "Visualizing Functional Data with an Application to eBays Online Auctions", Handbook on Data Visualization, Eds: Chen, Haerdle, and Unwin, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, ISBN: 3-540-33036-4, pp. 873-898.
Abstract: Technological advances in the measurement, collection, and storage of data have led tomore andmore complex data structures. Examples of such structures include measurements of the behavior of individuals over time, digitized two- or three-dimensional images of the brain, and recordings of three- or even four-dimensional movements of objects traveling through space and time. Such data, although recorded in a discrete fashion, are usually thought of as continuous objects that are represented by functional relationships. This gave rise to functional data analysis (FDA), which was made popular by the monographs of Ramsay and Silverman (1997, 2002), where the center of interest is a set of curves, shapes, objects, or, more generally, a set of functional observations , in contrast to classical statistics where interest centers on a set of data vectors. In that sense, functional data is not only different from the data structure studied in classical statistics, but it actually generalizes it. Many of these new data structures require new statistical methods to unveil the information that they carry.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Jank2008Visualizing,
  author = {Jank, Wolfgang and Shmueli, Galit and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman,
	Ben},
  title = {Visualizing Functional Data with an Application to eBays Online Auctions},
  journal = {Handbook on Data Visualization},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {873--898},
  chapter = {Visualizing Functional Data with an Application to eBays Online Auctions},
  editor = {Chen C-houh, Härdle W, Unwin A},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-540-33037-0_34.pdf}
}
Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2007), "Personal role management: Overview and a design study of email for university students", Designing Integrated Digital Work Environments: Beyond the Desktop, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2007), pp. 143-170.
Abstract: Evidence is accumulating about the difficulties that users have in managing their work using contemporary graphical user interfaces. Current designs offer a hierarchy of folders containing documents and taskbar operations to launch/exit applications. We propose a Personal Role Management strategy that emphasizes management of the multiple roles users have in their professional and personal lives. Each role involves coordination with groups of people and accomplishment of tasks within a schedule. We define Personal Role Management and summarize our earlier work that led to this strategy. This current project focused on understanding how Personal Role Management might improve email for college students. College students often assume distinct and predictable roles. Their student role is structured by the rhythm and interactions of classes, projects and exams. In both their family role and their work role for local companies, they deal with separate groups of people. We describe scenarios of use of a role-based email system, an interface mockup and user reactions. This research suggests that using those roles as a driving component for designing an email interface might address problems identified in our surveys and interviews of college students.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Plaisant2007Personal,
  author = {Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Personal role management: Overview and a design study of email for
	university students},
  journal = {Designing Integrated Digital Work Environments: Beyond the Desktop},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {143--170},
  chapter = {Personal role management: Overview and a design study of email for
	university students},
  editor = {Czerwinski, M. and Kaptelinin, V},
  publisher = {MIT Press, Cambridge},
  url = {http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/beyond-desktop-metaphor}
}
Zhao H, Plaisant C and Shneiderman B (2007), "Listening to choropleth maps: Interactive sonification of geo-referenced data for users with vision impairment", Universal Usability: Designing User Interfaces for Diverse Users, John Wiley & Sons, New York (2007), pp. 141-173.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Zhao2007Listening,
  author = {Zhao, Haixia and Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Listening to choropleth maps: Interactive sonification of geo-referenced
	data for users with vision impairment},
  journal = {Universal Usability: Designing User Interfaces for Diverse Users},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {141--173},
  chapter = {Listening to choropleth maps: Interactive sonification of geo-referenced
	data for users with vision impairment},
  editor = {Jonathan Lazar},
  file = {Listening to choropleth maps\: Interactive sonification of geo-referenced data for users with vision impairment:papers/Zhao2007Listening.pdf:PDF},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons},
  url = {http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-EHEP000899.html}
}
Jinwook S and Shneiderman B (2005), "A knowledge integration framework for information visualization", From Integrated Publication and Information Systems to Virtual Information and Knowledge Environments, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin (2005), pp. 207-220.
Abstract: Users can better understand complex data sets by combining insights from multiple coordinated visual displays that include relevant domain knowledge. When dealing with multidimensional data and clustering results, the most familiar displays and comprehensible are 1- and 2-dimensional projections (histograms, and scatterplots). Other easily understood displays of domain knowledge are tabular and hierarchical information for the same or related data sets. The novel parallel coordinates view [6] powered by a direct-manipulation search, offers strong advantages, but requires some training for most users. We provide a review of related work in the area of information visualization, and introduce new tools and interaction examples on how to incorporate users' domain knowledge for understanding clustering results. Our examples present hierarchical clustering of gene expression data, coordinated with a parallel coordinates view and with the gene annotation and gene ontology.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Jinwook2005knowledge,
  author = {Jinwook, Seo and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {A knowledge integration framework for information visualization},
  journal = {From Integrated Publication and Information Systems to Virtual Information
	and Knowledge Environments},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {207--220},
  chapter = {A knowledge integration framework for information visualization},
  editor = {Hemmje, M, Niederee, C., and Risse, T},
  publisher = {Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-31842-2_21}
}
Bessiere K, Ceaparu I, Lazar J, Robinson J and Shneiderman B (2004), "Social and psychological influences on computer user frustration", Media Access: Social and Psychological Dimensions of New Technology User, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ (2004), pp. 91-103.
Abstract: As computer usage has proliferated, so has user frustration. Even devoted and knowledgeable users encounter annoying delays, incomprehensible messages, incompatible files, and indecipherable menus. The frustration generated by these problems can be personally disturbing and socially disruptive. Psychological and social perspectives on frustration may clarify the relationships among variables such as personality types, cultural factors, goal attainment, workplace anger, and computer anxiety. These perspectives may also help designers, managers, and users understand the range of responses to frustration, which could lead to effective interventions such as redesign of software, improved training, better online help, user discipline, and even resetting of national research priorities.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Bessiere2004Social,
  author = {Bessiere, Katherine and Ceaparu, Irina and Lazar, Jonathan and Robinson,
	John and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Social and psychological influences on computer user frustration},
  journal = {Media Access: Social and Psychological Dimensions of New Technology
	User},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {91--103},
  chapter = {Social and psychological influences on computer user frustration},
  editor = {Bucy, E. P. and Newhagen, J. E.},
  publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ}
}
Ceaparu I, Demner D, Hung E, Zhao H and Shneiderman B (2002), ""In Web We Trust": Establishing strategic trust among online customers", E-Service, M. E. Sharpe Publishers, Armonk, NY (August 2002), pp. 90-107.
Abstract: The advent of the era of "e-service" -- the provision of services over electronic networks like the internet -- is one of the dominant business themes of the new millenium. It reflects the fundamental shift in the economy from goods to services and the explosive expansion of information technology. This book provides a collection of different perspectives on e-service and a unified framework to understand it, even as the business community grapples with the concept. It features contributions from key researchers and practitioners from both the private and public sectors, as well as leading scholars from the fields of marketing, information systems, and computer science. They focus on three key areas: the customer-technology interface; e-service business opportunities and strategies; and public sector e-service opportunities. The insights they offer will be equally useful to students, scholars, and practitioners.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Ceaparu2002In,
  author = {Ceaparu, Irina and Demner, Dina and Hung, Edward and Zhao, Haixia
	and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {"In Web We Trust": Establishing strategic trust among online customers},
  journal = {E-Service},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {90--107},
  month = {Aug.},
  chapter = {"In Web We Trust": Establishing strategic trust among online customers},
  editor = {Rust, R. and Kannan, P. K},
  publisher = {M. E. Sharpe Publishers, NY},
  url = {http://www.mesharpe.com/mall/resultsa.asp?Title=e-Service%3A+New+Directions+in+Theory+and+Practice}
}
Shneiderman B (2001), "Supporting creativity with advanced information-abundant user interfaces", Human-Centred Computing, Online Communities, and Virtual Environments, Springer-Verlag London (2001), pp. 469-480.
Abstract: A challenge for human—computer interaction researchers and user interface designers is to construct information technologies that support creativity. This ambitious goal can be attained if designers build on an adequate understanding of creative processes. This chapter describes a model of creativity, the four-phase genex framework for generating excellence: Collect: learn from previous works stored in digital libraries, the Web etc. Relate: consult with peers and mentors at early, middle and late stages Create: explore, compose, discover and evaluate possible solutions Donate: disseminate the results and contribute to the digital libraries, the Web etc. Within this integrated framework, there are eight activities that require human—computer interaction research and advanced user interface design. This chapter concentrates on techniques of information visualization that support creative work by enabling users to find relevant information resources, identify desired items in a set, or discover patterns in a collection. It describes information visualization methods and proposes five questions for the future: generality, integration, perceptual foundations, cognitive principles and collaboration.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman2001Supporting,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Supporting creativity with advanced information-abundant user interfaces},
  journal = {Human-Centred Computing, Online Communities, and Virtual Environments},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {469--480},
  chapter = {Supporting creativity with advanced information-abundant user interfaces},
  editor = {Earnshaw, R., Guedj, R., Van Dam, A., and Vince, J.},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-0259-5_34}
}
Shneiderman B (2001), "Universal Usability: A research agenda for human-computer interaction research to empower every citizen", Human-Centred Computing, Online Communities, and Virtual Environments, Springer-Verlag London (2001), pp. 179-189.
Abstract: The goal of universal access to information and communications services is compelling. It has united hardworking Internet technology promoters, telecommunications business leaders and government policy makers. Their positive motivations include innovative visions, corporate opportunities and social goods respectively, although critics see unreasonable zeal for technology, pursuit of high profit margins and regulatory excesses or omissions.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman2001Universal,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Universal Usability: A research agenda for human-computer interaction
	research to empower every citizen},
  journal = {Human-Centred Computing, Online Communities, and Virtual Environments},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {179--189},
  chapter = {Universal Usability: A research agenda for human-computer interaction
	research to empower every citizen},
  editor = {Earnshaw, R., Guedj, R., Van Dam, A., and Vince, J.},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4471-0259-5_12}
}
Shneiderman B (1997), "Direct manipulation versus agents: Paths to predictable, controllable, and comprehensible interfaces", Software Agents, AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA (1997), pp. 97-106.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1997Direct,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Direct manipulation versus agents: Paths to predictable, controllable,
	and comprehensible interfaces},
  journal = {Software Agents},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {97--106},
  chapter = {Direct manipulation versus agents: Paths to predictable, controllable,
	and comprehensible interfaces},
  editor = {Bradshaw, J.},
  publisher = {AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA},
  url = {http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/software-agents}
}
Shneiderman B (1990), "User interface races", The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, Addison-Wesley Publ., Reading, MA (1990), pp. 221-224.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1990User,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {User interface races},
  journal = {The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {221--224},
  chapter = {User interface races},
  editor = {B. Laurel},
  publisher = {Addison-Wesley Publ.},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/UIST05contest/UserInterfaceRaces.htm}
}
Shneiderman B (1990), "Design guidebook for interaction styles: A taxonomy, rule-base, and some opinions", Human Factors for Informatics Usability, Cambridge University Press (1990), pp. 325-342.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1990Design,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Design guidebook for interaction styles: A taxonomy, rule-base, and
	some opinions},
  journal = {Human Factors for Informatics Usability},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {325--342},
  chapter = {Design guidebook for interaction styles: A taxonomy, rule-base, and
	some opinions},
  editor = {B. Shackel},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  url = {http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1137066/?site_locale=en_GB}
}
Shneiderman B (1989), "Reflections on authoring, editing, and managing hypertext", The Society of Text, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1989), pp. 115-131.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1989Reflections,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Reflections on authoring, editing, and managing hypertext},
  journal = {The Society of Text},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {115--131},
  chapter = {Reflections on authoring, editing, and managing hypertext},
  editor = {Edward Barrett},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  url = {http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/society-text}
}
Weiser M and Shneiderman B (1986), "Human factors of computer programming", Handbook of Human Factors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (1986), pp. 1398-1415
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Weiser1986Human,
  author = {Weiser, Mark and Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {Human factors of computer programming},
  journal = {Handbook of Human Factors},
  year = {1986},
  pages = {1398--1415},
  chapter = {Human factors of computer programming},
  editor = {G. Salvendy},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.}
}
Shneiderman B (1983), "Human factors in interactive software", End User Systems and their Human Factors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1983), pp. 9-29.
Abstract: There is intense interest about human factors issues in interactive computer systems for life-critical applications, industrial/commercial uses, and personal computing in the office or home. Primary design goals include proper functionality, adequate reliability, suitable cost, and adherence to schedule. Measurable human factors issues include time to learn, speed of performance, rate of errors, subjective satisfaction, and retention over time. Specific human factors acceptance tests are described as a natural complement to hardware and software acceptance tests. Project management ideas, information resources, and potential research directions are presented.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1983Human,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Human factors in interactive software},
  journal = {End User Systems and their Human Factors},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {9--29},
  chapter = {Human factors in interactive software},
  editor = {A. Blaser and M. Zoeppritz},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Berlin},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/3-540-12273-7_16}
}
Shneiderman B (1983), "Human Factors in Computing", Encyclopedia of Computer Science, A. Ralston, Editor (1983), pp. 688-690.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1983Humana,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Human Factors in Computing},
  journal = {Encyclopedia of Computer Science},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {688--690},
  chapter = {Human Factors in Computing},
  edition = {2nd},
  editor = {A. Ralston}
}
Shneiderman B (1983), "Data Base On-Line", Encyclopedia of Computer Science, A. Ralston, Editor (1983), pp. 447-448.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1983Data,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Data Base On-Line},
  journal = {Encyclopedia of Computer Science},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {447--448},
  chapter = {Data Base On-Line},
  edition = {2nd},
  editor = {A. Ralston}
}
Shneiderman B (1982), "System message design: Guidelines and experimental results", Directions in Human-Computer Interaction, Ablex Publ. Co., Norwood, NJ, (1982), pp. 55-78.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1982System,
  author = {Shneiderman, Ben},
  title = {System message design: Guidelines and experimental results},
  journal = {Directions in Human-Computer Interaction},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {55--78},
  editor = {Badre, A. and Shneiderman, B},
  organization = {Ablex Publishing Company: Norwood, NJ},
  publisher = {Ablex Publishing Company: Norwood, NJ}
}
Shneiderman B (1977), "Human Factors Experiments for Developing Quality Software", INFOTECH State of the Art Report on Software Reliability, 1997, pp. 263-276.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1977Human,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {Human Factors Experiments for Developing Quality Software},
  journal = {INFOTECH State of the Art Report on Software Reliability},
  year = {1977},
  pages = {263--276},
  publisher = {INFOTECH State of the Art Report on Software Reliability}
}
Shneiderman B (1976), ""Errors", "Data Type", "Rings", "FIFO-LIFO" sections", Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Anthony Ralston, Editor, Petrocelli/Charter Publisher.
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{Shneiderman1976Errors,
  author = {Ben Shneiderman},
  title = {"Errors", "Data Type", "Rings", "FIFO-LIFO" sections},
  journal = {Encyclopedia of Computer Science},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {12--12},
  number = {4},
  month = {Dec.},
  note = {Reviewer-Landis, Carolyn P.},
  acmid = {958856},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  doi = {10.1145/958852.958856},
  issn = {0095-2737},
  issue_date = {Winter 1976},
  numpages = {1},
  publisher = {ACM},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958852.958856}
}
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